The online tool for teaching with documents, from the National Archives

Debating Monuments, Memorials and Statues

Weighing the Evidence

All documents and text associated with this activity are printed below, followed by a worksheet for student responses.

Introduction

You have been appointed by Congress to a National Monument, Memorial, and Statue Taskforce that is asked to make recommendations in favor or against statues erected throughout the United States. Your team's recommendations will be used by localities around the country to decide what to do with these cultural objects.

Choose one of these three actions for each monument and place it on the scale accordingly:

  • Remain (in its current location as is)
  • Contextualize (add full historical details in its current location)
  • Remove (to a museum or cemetery)

Place the statues that should remain or be removed closer to the ends of the scale, and the ones that should be contextualized in their current locations in the middle of the scale.

As you work, for each monument, make a list of the positive and negative aspects of keeping or removing the statue from the public square. Keep in mind both the actions of the individual memorialized and the sculpture itself as a work of art when considering your recommendations.


Name:
Class:

Worksheet

Debating Monuments, Memorials and Statues

Weighing the Evidence

Examine the documents and text included in this activity. Consider how each document does or does not support two opposing interpretations or conclusions. Fill in the topic or interpretations if they are not provided. To show how the documents support the different interpretations, enter the corresponding document number into the boxes near the interpretation. Write your conclusion response in the space provided.

Interpretation 1
This statue should be removed from the public square.

Monuments, Memorials and Statues
Interpretation 2
This statue should remain in the public square.



1

Activity Element

Columbus Statue, Providence, RI

Page 1



2

Activity Element

Emancipation Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Page 1



3

Activity Element

Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, Washington, DC

Page 1



4

Activity Element

General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

Page 2



5

Activity Element

Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 4



6

Activity Element

Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 1



7

Activity Element

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 1



8

Activity Element

Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, AR

Page 1



9

Activity Element

Caesar Rodney Statue, Wilmington, DE

Page 1



10

Activity Element

Douglas Tomb State Memorial, Chicago, IL

Page 1



11

Activity Element

George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI

Page 1



12

Activity Element

George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 1



13

Activity Element

Pierre Menard Statue, Springfield, IL

Page 1



14

Activity Element

Pioneer Monument, Denver, CO

Page 1



15

Activity Element

Statue of Father Junipero Serra, San Juan Capistrano, CA

Page 1



16

Activity Element

Buffalo Bill Statue, Cody, WY

Page 1



17

Activity Element

Jefferson Davis Statue, Vicksburg, MS

Page 1



18

Activity Element

Thomas Jefferson, Cleveland, OH

Page 1



19

Activity Element

Equestrian Statue of George Washington, Union Square, New York City, NY

Page 1



Conclusion

Debating Monuments, Memorials and Statues

Weighing the Evidence

  • In general, what was the most important factor in recommending to keep a monument, memorial, or statue? Explain.
  • In general, what was the most important factor in recommending to remove a monument, memorial, or statue? Explain. 
  • What process should be set up to decide which statues to keep or remove? Who should play a role in the decision?


Your Response




Document

Columbus Statue, Providence, RI

1893 (photograph 1999)

This statue of Christopher Columbus by August Bartholdi was unveiled in 1893 in Providence, Rhode Island. Standing nearly seven feet high, this bronze statue was located in the center of a tiny park in a busy intersection in the south side of the city.  The explorer appears with his right hand pointing while his left hand holds a globe. The base is inscribed with COLUMBUS, 1492, and 1893. 

Created by Bartholdi, more famously known for the Statue of Liberty, this bronze statue was a copy of temporary silver statue originally produced for the famous Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Throughout the early 21st century, the Columbus statue was a repeated subject of vandalism by protesters against honoring Christopher Columbus. 

In 2020, following the national dialogue on statues and monuments initially brought about by the protests against police brutality and racism in policing, the mayor of Providence ordered the removal of the statue. It was removed from Columbus Square on June 25, 2020.

This photo and description of the Columbus Statue in Providence, RI are part of materials from the Columbus registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006.
National Archives Identifier: 41374558
Full Citation: Columbus Statue, Providence, RI; 1893 (photograph 1999); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Rhode Island; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records; Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/columbus-statue-providence-ri, December 8, 2022]


Columbus Statue, Providence, RI

Page 1



Document

Emancipation Memorial in Washington, D.C.

4/14/1876 (photograph unknown date)

The Emancipation Memorial (also known as the Freedman's Memorial, Freedom's Memorial, or the Emancipation Group) was created by sculptor Thomas Ball. The focus is on Abraham Lincoln as the Great Emancipator as it features the 16th President standing while a formerly enslaved freedman begins to rise. Located in Lincoln Park in Washington, DC, the statue was paid for entirely by the donations of former enslaved people. It was dedicated 11 years after Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, 1876, in an event that featured a speech from orator Frederick Douglass.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, 1860 - 1952.
National Archives Identifier: 93961955
Full Citation: Emancipation Memorial in Washington, D.C.; 4/14/1876 (photograph unknown date); J.M. Moon Collection of Lincolniana; Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, 1860 - 1952, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/emancipation-memorial-in-washington-dc-closeup, December 8, 2022]


Emancipation Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Page 1



Document

Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, Washington, DC

1853 (photographs 1959-1975)

Located in Lafeyette Park directly north of the White House, this statue of the seventh President was unveiled on January 8, 1853, the anniversary of Andrew Jackson's victory at New Orleans. Andrew Jackson is depicted facing the White House wearing his uniform from the Battle of New Orleans.  “The Federal Union It Must Be Preserved” is inscribed on the marble pedestal. 

The statue was made by Clark Mills and is considered to be both the first equestrian statue in the United States and the first bronze sculpture cast in the United States.  In addition, it was the first equestrian statue in the world to be balanced solely on the horse's hind legs.

These photos of the Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson in Washington, DC are part of materials from the Lafayette Square Historic Districts Nomination for National Historic Landmark status.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 117691835
Full Citation: Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, Washington, DC; 1853 (photographs 1959-1975); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Washington, DC; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/equestrian-statue-andrew-jackson, December 8, 2022]


Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, Washington, DC

Page 1



Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, Washington, DC

Page 2



Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson, Washington, DC

Page 3



Document

General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

1915 (photograph 1999)

This sculpture of General P. G. T. Beauregard, by Alexander Doyle, was unveiled in 1915 in New Orleans, LA. The bronze equestrian statue is 16 feet in height. General Beauregard, born in neighboring St. Bernards Parish, is depicted wearing a Confederate uniform, coat and cap.  

In 2015, the New Orleans City Council voted to relocate the monument, along with three other statues associated with the Confederacy. Lawsuits were filed opposing the removal, but in 2017 the United States Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that the City of New Orleans could proceed. The statue was removed on May 17, 2017.

These photos and description are part of materials from the registration of General Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans, LA  in the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 73974300
Full Citation: General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA; 1915 (photograph 1999); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Louisiana; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/general-beauregard-equestrian-statue-new-orleans-la, December 8, 2022]


General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

Page 1



General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

Page 2



General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

Page 3



General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

Page 4



General Beauregard Equestrian Statue, New Orleans, LA

Page 5



Document

Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

ca. 1976

Designed by renowned architect Cass Gilbert, the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House was constructed in the early 20th century. This beaux-arts masterpiece was built to house New York’s United States Custom Service to assess and collect duties and taxes on imported goods in one of the nation’s most prosperous ports. 

The Four Continents Statues at the building’s entrance represent Asia, America, Europe, and Africa and are prime examples of the City Beautiful movement and national pride during the early 20th century. The National Historic Landmark currently houses the National Archives at New York City, the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York among other Federal agencies.

These photos of the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House in New York City, NY are part of materials from the U.S. Custom House Nomination Form for National Historic Landmark status.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 75315846
Full Citation: Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York; ca. 1976; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: New York; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/exterior-photographs-alexander-hamilton-us-custom-house-new-york, December 8, 2022]


Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 1



Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 2



Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 3



Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 4



Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 5



Exterior Photographs Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, New York

Page 6



Document

Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

1905 (photographs 2008)

This statue of Nathan Bedford Forrest by Charles Henry Niehaus was unveiled in 1905 in Memphis, Tennessee. The bronze equestrian statue depicts the Confederate General and Grand Wizard of the KKK looking out into the distance aboard his horse.

Following an earlier attempt to remove the statue in 2015, the Memphis City Council passed an ordinance to remove Confederate Statues from public parks. After selling the park (which had previously been renamed from Forrest Park to Health Sciences Park), the statue was removed on December 20, 2017.

This photo and description of the Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument in Memphis, Tennessee are part of materials from the Forrest Park Historic District registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006.
National Archives Identifier: 135819772
Full Citation: Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN; 1905 (photographs 2008); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Tennessee; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records; Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/nathan-bedford-forrest-monument-memphis-tn, December 8, 2022]


Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 1



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 2



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 3



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 4



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 5



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 6



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 7



Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

Page 8



Document

Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

1921 (Photos taken 1995)

This sculpture of Stonewall Jackson by Charles Keck was erected in 1921 in Charlottesville, Virginia. The equestrian statue portrays Jackson, riding into battle on his horse, Little Sorrel, in bronze, led by the allegorical figures of Faith and Valor carved on the front of the pink granite pedestal.

It was part of a series of sculptures by Members of the National Sculpture Society donated by Paul Goodloe McIntire to the city of Charlottesville, Virginia, and the University of Virginia during the late City Beautiful movement from 1919-1924. Following years of court battles and a legal removal process, the statue of Stonewall Jackson was removed on July 10, 2021. It was removed on the same day as nearby statues of Robert E. Lee and Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. A statue of George Rogers Clark located on the University of Virginia campus was removed the following day.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 41678615
Full Citation: Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA; 1921 (Photos taken 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Virginia; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/stonewall-jackson-sculpture-charlottesville-virginia, December 8, 2022]


Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 1



Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 2



Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 3



Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 4



Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 5



Document

Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, AR

1913 (Photograph 1995)

This Monument to Confederate Women (also known as Mother of the South) by J. Otto Schweizer was unveiled in 1913 on the State Capitol grounds in Little Rock, Arkansas.  The bronze sculpture on a marble base depicts a mother and her two younger children saying farewell to her 16-year-old son who is leaving to join his father in battle.  The oldest son is dressed in a Confederate uniform with CSA on his belt buckle. 

Engraved on a bronze plaque on the base entitled "TO THE CONFEDERATE WOMEN OF ARKANSAS
1861-1865" is the following: 

"WHOSE PIOUS MINISTRATIONS TO OUR WOUNDED SOLDIERS SOOTHED THE LAST HOURS OF THOSE WHO DIED FOR THE  OBJECT OF THEIR TENDEREST LOVE; WHOSE DOMESTIC LABORS CONTRIBUTED MUCH TO SUPPLY THE WANTS OF OUR DEFENDERS IN THE FIELD; WHOSE JEALOUS FAITH IN OUR CAUSE SHONE A GUIDING STAR, UNDIMMED BY THE DARKEST CLOUDS OF WAR; WHOSE FORTITUDE SUSTAINED THEM UNDER ALL THE PRIVATIONS TO WHICH THEY WERE SUBJECTED; AND WHOSE PATRIOTISM WILL TEACH THEIR SONS TO EMULATE THE DEEDS OF THEIR SIRES.

THIS MONUMENT IS ERECTED BY THE STATE OF ARKANSAS AND THE CONFEDERATE VETERANS." 

In June 2020, following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, a petition to remove Confederate statues from the Arkansas State Capitol grounds to a more appropriate location was posted to Change.org. In August 2020, barriers were added around the Confederate Soldiers Monument and the Monument to Confederate Women to protect them after threats of vandalism and destruction were shared on social media. According to Arkansas state law, the legislature must approve removal of monuments from the Capitol grounds.  As of January 2021, the Confederate statues remain in place near the Arkansas State Capitol. 

This photo and description of the Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, Arkansas are part of materials from its registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 26140488
Full Citation: Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, AR; 1913 (Photograph 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Arkansas; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/monument-to-confederate-women-little-rock-ar, December 8, 2022]


Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, AR

Page 1



Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, AR

Page 2



Monument to Confederate Women, Little Rock, AR

Page 3



Document

Caesar Rodney Statue, Wilmington, DE

1923 (Photograph 2011)

This Caesar Rodney Statue by James Edward Kelly was erected in 1923 in Wilmington, DE.  The bronze equestrian statue depicts the American Founding Father during his famous ride from Dover to Philadelphia to break the deadlocked vote to declare independence. 

In June 2020, following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, the statue of Caesar Rodney was removed by the Wilmington government due to his history as a slaveholder.  According to the Mayor, it was removed to protect it from potential damage and to allow for a public discussion about the display of monuments to historical figures. 

This photo and description of the Caesar Rodney Statue in Wilmington, DE are part of materials from the Rodney Square Historic District nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 75324295
Full Citation: Caesar Rodney Statue, Wilmington, DE; 1923 (Photograph 2011); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Delaware; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/caesar-rodney-statue-wilmington-de, December 8, 2022]


Caesar Rodney Statue, Wilmington, DE

Page 1



Document

Douglas Tomb State Memorial, Chicago, IL

1881 (Photograph 1984)

This Douglas State Tomb Memorial by Leonard W. Volk was unveiled in 1881 in Chicago, Illinois.   Standing nearly 100 feet tall, the memorial includes granite base with a column with a bronze statue of Stephen A. Douglas atop it.  Douglas stands nearly 10 feet tall with a scroll in his left hand as he looks towards Lake Michigan.  At the base on four pedestals are statues of Illinois, History, Justice and Eloquence. Douglas's remains are in a marble sarcophagus inscribed with his last words, "Tell my children to obey the laws and uphold the Constitution."

In July 2020, following the national dialogue on statues and monuments initially brought about by the protests against police brutality and racism in policing, Illinois legislators asked to have the statue of Douglas atop the memorial to be removed due to Douglas's history of slave ownership.  As of December 2020, its final status is still to be determined.

This photo and description of the Douglas State Tomb Memorial in Chicago, IL are part of materials from its nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 28892602
Full Citation: Douglas Tomb State Memorial, Chicago, IL; 1881 (Photograph 1984); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Illinois; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/douglas-tomb-state-memorial-chicago-il, December 8, 2022]


Douglas Tomb State Memorial, Chicago, IL

Page 1



Document

George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI

1910 (Photographs 1994)

This George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument by Edward Clark Potter was unveiled in 1910 in Monroe, Michigan.  The bronze equestrian statue depicts a Civil War era Custer in the pose of "Sighthing the Enemy." Inscribed on the pedestal on two sides is simply CUSTER, while one of the remaining sides states "Erected by the State of Michigan."

In July 2020, following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, a petition was posted to Change.org to remove the statue due to George Custer's actions following the Civil War in the Indian Wars.  As of December 2020, it still is on public display. 

This photo and description of the George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument in Monroe, MI are part of materials from its nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 25340150
Full Citation: George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI; 1910 (Photographs 1994); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Michigan; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/george-armstrong-custer-equestrian-monument-monroe-mi, December 8, 2022]


George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI

Page 1



George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI

Page 2



George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI

Page 3



George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument, Monroe, MI

Page 4



Document

George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

1921 (photographs 1995)

Located in Charlottesville, Virginia, this sculpture of George Rogers Clark by Robert Ingersoll Aitken was erected in 1921. The pedestal is inscribed "George Rogers Clark, Conqueror of the Northwest."  The sculptural group depicts the American Revolution military leader of the frontier leading three members of his expedition into a confrontation with three Native Americans.

It is part of a series of sculptures by Members of the National Sculpture Society donated by Paul Goodloe McIntire to the city of Charlottesville, Virginia, and the University of Virginia during the late City Beautiful movement from 1919-1924.

Following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, the University of Virginia (UVA) created a Racism Equity Task Force to examine and evaluate the institution's history. In September 2020, UVA's Board of Visitors unanimously accepted several of the task force resolutions, including one to remove the statue of George Rogers Clark. The statue was removed on July 11, 2021, the day after nearby statues Robert E. LeeStonewall Jackson and Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were removed from Charlottesville public land.

These photos are part of materials from the registration of Four Monumental Figurative Outdoor Sculptures in Charlottesville, VA, in the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 41678619
Full Citation: George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA; 1921 (photographs 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Virginia; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/george-rogers-clark-sculpture-charlottesville-va, December 8, 2022]


George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 1



George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 2



George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 3



George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 4



George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 5



George Rogers Clark Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

Page 6



Document

Pierre Menard Statue, Springfield, IL

1918 (Photograph 1985)

This statue of Pierre Menard by John Mahoney was unveiled in 1888 in Springfield, Illinois. Menard was President of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Territorial General Assemblies and Illinois's First Lieutenant Governor. 

In July 2020, following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, the Speaker of the Illinois House asked the board Office of the Architect of the Capitol to consider removing certain statues from Capitol grounds. The following month, the board of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol in Illinois voted to remove the statue of Stephen A. Douglas and Pierre Menard due to their history of slave ownership.  They were both removed on September 26, 2020.

This photo and description of the Pierre Menard Statue in Springfield, IL are part of materials from the Illinois State Capitol nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 28894062
Full Citation: Pierre Menard Statue, Springfield, IL; 1918 (Photograph 1985); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Illinois; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/pierre-menard-springfield-il, December 8, 2022]


Pierre Menard Statue, Springfield, IL

Page 1



Pierre Menard Statue, Springfield, IL

Page 2



Document

Pioneer Monument, Denver, CO

1911

The Pioneer Monument by Frederick MacMonnies (sculptor) and Ladd and Sanger (contractor) was dedicated in 1911 in Denver, Colorado.  The central figure of this fountain is Kit Carson holding a rifle while riding his horse.  Surrounding him on the base are sculptures representing the Prospector, the Hunter, and the Pioneer Mother and Child. 

In late June 2020, during a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, nearby statues honoring Christopher Columbus and Civil War soldiers were vandalized and toppled by protestors.  On June 27, 2020, the statue of Kit Carson located in the center of the Pioneer Monument was removed by the city of Denver. 

The photos and description of the Pioneer Monument in Denver, CO are part of materials from Civic Center Historic District registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 84129195
Full Citation: Pioneer Monument, Denver, CO; 1911; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Colorado; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/pioneer-monument-denver-co, December 8, 2022]


Pioneer Monument, Denver, CO

Page 1



Pioneer Monument, Denver, CO

Page 2



Pioneer Monument, Denver, CO

Page 3



Document

Statue of Father Junipero Serra, San Juan Capistrano, CA

1915

This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Public Roads, 1892 - 1972.
National Archives Identifier: 135801870
Full Citation: Statue of Father Junipero Serra, San Juan Capistrano, CA; 1915; States - California; Historical Photograph Files, 1896 - 1963; Records of the Bureau of Public Roads, 1892 - 1972, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/statue-of-father-junipero-serra-san-juan-capistrano-ca, December 8, 2022]


Statue of Father Junipero Serra, San Juan Capistrano, CA

Page 1



Document

Buffalo Bill Statue, Cody, WY

1924 (Photographs 1972)

The Buffalo Bill Statue by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney was erected in Cody, Wyoming in 1924. 

The 14 foot bronze equestrian statue depicts William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody during his days as an Indian Wars army scout.  He is seen bending down in his saddle while holding up his right arm with a rifle in it.  Standing on a base that is 20 feet high and 270 feet in circumference, it was designed to be a miniature replica of nearby Cedar Mountain.

The photos and description of the Buffalo Bill Statue in Cody, WY are part of materials from its registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 73730589
Full Citation: Buffalo Bill Statue, Cody, WY; 1924 (Photographs 1972); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Wyoming; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/buffalo-bill-statue-cody-wy, December 8, 2022]


Buffalo Bill Statue, Cody, WY

Page 1



Buffalo Bill Statue, Cody, WY

Page 2



Buffalo Bill Statue, Cody, WY

Page 3



Document

Jefferson Davis Statue, Vicksburg, MS

1926 (Photograph 1975)

The Jefferson Davis Statue by Henry H. Kitson was erected in Vicksburg, MS in 1926. 

The President of the Confederacy is depicted as a standing bronze figure with his left arm around the Confederate flag. 

The photos and description of the Jefferson Davis Statue in Vicksburg, MS are part of materials from the Vicksburg National Military Park registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 73892179
Full Citation: Jefferson Davis Statue, Vicksburg, MS; 1926 (Photograph 1975); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Mississippi; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/jefferson-davis-statue-vicksburg-ms, December 8, 2022]


Jefferson Davis Statue, Vicksburg, MS

Page 1



Document

Thomas Jefferson, Cleveland, OH

1911 (Photograph Unknown)

Thomas Jefferson statue by Karl Bitter was unveiled in 1911 in front of the Cuyahoga County Courthouse in Cleveland, Ohio.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Commission of Fine Arts.
National Archives Identifier: 57358782
Full Citation: Thomas Jefferson, Cleveland, OH; 1911 (Photograph Unknown); Statues, Monuments and Memorials in U.S.: Arranged alphabetically by name - 66G19A (letter 'A') through 66G19Y (letter 'Y'); General Photographic File of the Commission of Fine Arts, ca. 1910 - 1950; Records of the Commission of Fine Arts, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/thomas-jefferson-cleveland-oh, December 8, 2022]


Thomas Jefferson, Cleveland, OH

Page 1



Thomas Jefferson, Cleveland, OH

Page 2



Document

Equestrian Statue of George Washington, Union Square, New York City, NY

1856 (photograph 1995)

This equestrian statue of George Washington, by Henry Kirke Brown (sculptor), John Quincy Adams Ward (assistant), and Richard Upjohn (architect) was unveiled in 1856 in Union Square in New York City, NY. The Washington statue was dedicated on July 4,1856, after Brown had worked on it for four years.  The statue depicts General Washington on Evacuation Day, when the British finally left New York in November 1783.  The bronze statue measures over 13 feet tall and is the oldest sculpture in the New York City Parks system.

In 2020, following the national dialogue on statues and monuments initially brought about by the protests against police brutality and racism in policing, the statue's pedestal was defaced by a protester.

This photograph of the Equestrian Statue of George Washington in New York City, NY are part of materials from the Union Square Form for National Register of Historic Places status.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 75315974
Full Citation: Equestrian Statue of George Washington, Union Square, New York City, NY; 1856 (photograph 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: New York; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/equestrian-statue-of-george-washington-union-square-new-york-city-ny, December 8, 2022]


Equestrian Statue of George Washington, Union Square, New York City, NY

Page 1