The online tool for teaching with documents, from the National Archives

How did Progressive Ideas Change the Constitution?

Making Connections

All documents and text associated with this activity are printed below, followed by a worksheet for student responses.

Introduction

In this activity, you will examine Progressive era amendments to the U.S. Constitution.


Name:
Class:

Worksheet

How did Progressive Ideas Change the Constitution?

Making Connections

Examine the documents and text included in this activity. Fill in any blanks in the sequence with your thoughts and write your conclusion response in the space provided.

Joint Resolution Proposing the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution


Calculating New Income Tax


How did the 16th Amendment impact Americans?
Enter your response

Joint Resolution Proposing the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution


Untitled


What problem was the 17th Amendment designed to address?
Enter your response

Joint Resolution Proposing the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution


Photograph of Prohibition Agents Destroying a Bar


What changes were brought about by the 18th Amendment?
Enter your response

Photograph of Flag Bearer for Women`s Rights Standing Near White House


Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution


How did the 19th Amendment expand suffrage?
Enter your response



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Activity Element

Joint Resolution Proposing the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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2

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Calculating New Income Tax

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3

Activity Element

Joint Resolution Proposing the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Untitled

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Activity Element

Joint Resolution Proposing the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Photograph of Prohibition Agents Destroying a Bar

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Photograph of Flag Bearer for Women`s Rights Standing Near White House

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8

Activity Element

Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Conclusion

How did Progressive Ideas Change the Constitution?

Making Connections

In this activity, you will examine Progressive era amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

Your Response




Document

Joint Resolution Proposing the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

1909

This item consists of the joint resolution proposing the Sixteenth Amendment, which was ratified February 3, 1913, and grants Congress the right to impose a tax on the earnings of its citizens. A joint resolution is a formal opinion adopted by both houses of the legislative branch. A constitutional amendment must be passed as a joint resolution before it is sent to the states for ratification.

Transcript

Sixty-first Congress of the United States of America, At the First Session,

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the fifteenth day of March, one thousand nine hundred and nine.

JOINT RESOLUTION

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States.


Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which, when ratified by the legislature of three-fourths of the several States, shall be valid to all intents and purposes as a part of the Constitution:

"ARTICLE XVI. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration."

[Endorsements]
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 1408918
Full Citation: Joint Resolution Proposing the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; 1909; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 2011; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/sixteenth-amendment, June 19, 2021]


Joint Resolution Proposing the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Document

Calculating New Income Tax

2/7/1919

Cartoonist Clifford Berryman illustrates a new situation that would be commonplace for many Americans in the future—trying to calculate their income tax. Although only a small percentage of Americans were required to pay income tax in 1919, the government's need for funds had grown rapidly during the war years and continued to be high for 1919 as the United States provided food and other materials for a decimated Europe. The income tax was a relatively new means of collecting taxes, but would become a major source of government revenue in the decades ahead. Congress had been given the power to collect taxes based on income with the ratification of the 16th amendment to the Constitution on February 3, 1913.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Senate.
National Archives Identifier: 6011549
Full Citation: Calculating New Income Tax; 2/7/1919; Records of the U.S. Senate, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/calculating-new-income-tax, June 19, 2021]


Calculating New Income Tax

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Document

Joint Resolution Proposing the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

5/13/1912

This item consists of the joint resolution proposing the Seventeenth Amendment, which was ratified April 8, 1913, and grants voters the right to cast direct votes for their U.S. Senator. A joint resolution is a formal opinion adopted by both houses of the legislative branch. A constitutional amendment must be passed as a joint resolution before it is sent to the states for ratification.

Transcript

Sixty-second Congress of the United States of America; At the Second Session,

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the fourth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and eleven.

JOINT RESOLUTION
Proposing an amendment to the Constitution providing that Senators shall be elected by the people of the several States.


Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring therein), That in lieu of the first paragraph of section three of Article I of the Constitution of the United States, and in lieu of so much of paragraph two of the same section as relates to the filling of vacancies, the following be proposed as an amendment to the Constitution, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States:

"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

"When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

"This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. "

[Endorsements]
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 1408966
Full Citation: Joint Resolution Proposing the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; 5/13/1912; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 2011; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/seventeenth-amendment, June 19, 2021]


Joint Resolution Proposing the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Document

Untitled

2/4/1911

The Founders intended for the Senate to represent the states, therefore the Constitution directed that state legislatures would elect Senators. But when both houses of a state legislature didn’t agree on a candidate, the election deadlocked, and the Senate seat remained empty. This cartoon illustrated how common such deadlocks had become when Congress finally addressed this problem by proposing the 17th Amendment.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Senate.
National Archives Identifier: 6010878
Full Citation: Untitled; 2/4/1911; (G-036); Berryman Political Cartoon Collection, 1896 - 1949; Records of the U.S. Senate, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/just-usual-crop-senatorial-deadlocks, June 19, 2021]


Untitled

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Document

Joint Resolution Proposing the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

12/18/1917

This joint resolution proposed the Eighteenth Amendment. A joint resolution is a formal opinion adopted by both houses of the legislative branch. A constitutional amendment must be passed as a joint resolution before it is sent to the states for ratification.

This resolution was submitted to the states on December 18, 1917, proposed amending the U.S. Constitution to prohibit the “manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors.” The amendment was ratified on January 16, 1919. “Prohibition” ended in 1933 when the 21st Amendment repealed the 18th.
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 596355
Full Citation: Joint Resolution Proposing the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; 12/18/1917; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 2011; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/18th-amendment, June 19, 2021]


Joint Resolution Proposing the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Document

Photograph of Prohibition Agents Destroying a Bar

ca. 1920-1933


Additional details from our exhibits and publications

After the ratification of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages became illegal in the United States. Prohibition agents often used force to stop the sale of alcohol in clandestine bars or “speakeasies.” Prohibition lasted from 1920 until 1933, when the 18th Amendment was repealed.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Information Agency.
National Archives Identifier: 595674
Full Citation: Photograph of Prohibition Agents Destroying a Bar; ca. 1920-1933; Records of the U.S. Information Agency, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/photograph-of-prohibition-agents-destroying-a-bar, June 19, 2021]


Photograph of Prohibition Agents Destroying a Bar

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Document

Photograph of Flag Bearer for Women's Rights Standing Near White House

1/30/1917

Frustrated with President Woodrow Wilson’s inaction on woman suffrage, the National Women’s Party (NWP) began picketing in front of the White House to press for voting rights for women; they were the first political activists to do so.

This photograph of "Silent Sentinel" Alison Turnbull Hopkins outside the White House poses the central question of the matter. Her banner reads: "Mr. President How Long Must Women Wait for Liberty."

The NWP began peacefully protesting six days a week in January 1917, but encountered hostile crowds after the United States entered World War I in April. Dozens of women were arrested, many of whom were jailed and force-fed. The resulting publicity and public outcry over their treatment is often credited with compelling President Woodrow Wilson to support woman suffrage.

The protesters demonstrated for nearly 30 months until Congress passed a joint resolution proposing a 19th amendment on June 4, 1919.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Information Agency.
National Archives Identifier: 594266
Full Citation: Photograph 306-N-70-2641; Photograph of Flag Bearer for Women's Rights Standing Near White House; 1/30/1917; Photographs of U.S. and Foreign Personalities, World Events, and American Economic, Social, and Cultural Life, ca. 1953 - ca. 1994; Records of the U.S. Information Agency, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/flag-bearer-womens-rights, June 19, 2021]


Photograph of Flag Bearer for Women's Rights Standing Near White House

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Document

Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

6/4/1919

This document shows approval by both the House of Representatives and the Senate (by two-thirds vote in each house) of the proposed 19th amendment to the Constitution that "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

Despite opposition from southern states, both houses of Congress passed the 19th Amendment, proposing full voting rights for women, and sent it to the states for ratification. Three-fourths of the states, or 36 states at that time, had to ratify the amendment before it could be added to the Constitution. On August 18, 1920, after calling a special session of the state legislature, Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment, thereby legally enfranchising one-half of the people.

The campaign for woman suffrage was long, difficult, and sometimes dramatic, yet ratification did not ensure full enfranchisement. Many women remained unable to vote long into the 20th century because of discriminatory state voting laws.

The document shown here is the Congressional joint resolution proposing the 19th Amendment. A joint resolution is a formal opinion adopted by both houses of the legislative branch. A constitutional amendment must be passed as a joint resolution before it is sent to the states for ratification.

Transcript

Sixty-sixth Congress of the United States of America; At the First Session,

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the nineteenth day of May, one thousand nine hundred and nineteen.

JOINT RESOLUTION

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution extending the right of suffrage to women.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislature of three-fourths of the several States.

"ARTICLE ————.

"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

[endorsements]
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 596314
Full Citation: Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; 6/4/1919; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 2011; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/nineteenth-amendment, June 19, 2021]


Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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