The online tool for teaching with documents, from the National Archives

La Constitución en Acción

Seeing the Big Picture

All documents and text associated with this activity are printed below, followed by a worksheet for student responses.

Introduction

La Constitución de los Estados Unidos consta de cuatro páginas de pergamino escrito hace más de 200 años. Sin embargo, la Constitución sigue siendo relevante para nuestra vida cotidiana. La Constitución sirve como la base para todas las acciones de nuestro gobierno—incluyendo los actos del Congreso, candidaturas presidenciales, las decisiones de La Corte Suprema, la admisión de nuevos Estados a la Unión, las modificaciones de la Constitución, e incluso el juramento de los funcionarios del gobierno. Cada documento en la red muestra la Constitución en la acción. Examine de cerca cada una y hagala coincidir con la parte de la Constitución con la que coincide.


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Worksheet

La Constitución en Acción

Seeing the Big Picture

Examine the documents and text included in this activity. Consider how each document or piece of text relates to each other and create matched pairs. Write the text or document number next to its match below. Write your conclusion response in the space provided.

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Artículo V

"El Congreso, siempre que dos terceras partes de ambas Cámaras lo juzguen necesario, propondrá enmiendas a esta Constitución, o, en la solicitud de las legislaturas de las dos terceras partes de los diversos Estados, convocará a una Convención para proponer enmiendas, que, en cualquier caso, será válido a todos los efectos, como parte de esta Constitución, cuando ratificada por las legislaturas de las tres cuartas partes de los diversos Estados, o por convenciones reunidas en tres cuartos de los mismos, ya que el uno o el otro modo de hacer la ratificación será propuesto por el Congreso; sin embargo, ninguna modificación que pueda hacerse antes del año de mil ochocientos ocho no será en cualquier forma las cláusulas primera y cuarta de la sección novena del artículo primero y de que ningún Estado, sin su el consentimiento, podrá ser privado de la igualdad de voto en el Senado ."


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Artículo I, Sección 5

"... Cada Cámara puede determinar su reglamento interior, castigar a sus miembros por conducta desordenada, y con el asentimiento de las dos terceras partes, expulsar a un miembro."


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Artículo II, Sección 3 "

[El presidente] ... deberán de vez en cuando dar al Congreso informes sobre el Estado de la Unión, recomendando a su consideración las medidas que estime necesarias y oportunas; puede, en extraordinaria ocasiones, convocar a ambas Cámaras o a cualquiera de ellas, y en caso de desacuerdo entre ellos, con respecto a la hora del receso, podrá suspender sus sesiones a determinar cuando lo juzgue conveniente; él recibirá a los embajadores y otros ministros públicos; él velará por que las leyes sean fielmente ejecutadas, y deberá comisionar a todos los funcionarios de los Estados Unidos. "


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Artículo VII

"La ratificación de las convenciones de nueve Estados, deberá ser suficiente para el establecimiento de esta Constitución entre los Estados que la ratifiquen...."


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Artículo IV, Sección 4 "Los Estados Unidos garantizarán a todo Estado comprendido en esta Unión una forma republicana de gobierno y protegerán a cada uno en contra de invasiones, y en aplicación de la Legislatura, o del Ejecutivo (cuando la Legislatura no puede ser convocado ), contra la violencia doméstica."


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Artículo III, Sección 1

"El poder judicial de los Estados Unidos residirá en un Tribunal Supremo y en los tribunales inferiores que el Congreso puede, de vez en vez, ordenar y establecer. Los jueces, tanto de La Corte Suprema como de los inferiores, continuarán en sus funciones mientras observen buena conducta y recibirán, en periodos fijos, una compensación por sus servicios, que no podrá ser disminuida durante su encargo...."


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Artículo I, Sección 9

"... El privilegio del habeas corpus no se suspenderá, salvo cuando en casos de rebelión o invasión la seguridad pública lo exija."


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Artículo III, Sección 3

"La traición contra los Estados Unidos consistirá únicamente en hacer la guerra en su contra o en unirse a sus enemigos, impartiéndoles ayuda y protección. A ninguna persona se le condenará por traición si no es en el testimonio de dos testigos al mismo acto perpetrado abiertamente o de una confesión en Corte abierta .... "


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Artículo I, Sección 10

"... Ningún Estado podrá, sin el consentimiento del Congreso, fijar ningun Derecho de Tonelaje, mantener tropas o buques de guerra en tiempo de paz, celebrar convenio o pacto alguno con otro Estado o con una potencia extranjera, o hacer la guerra, a no ser invadido realmente o de hallarse en peligro tan inminente que no admita demora."


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Artículo I, Sección 8

"El Congreso tendrá el poder ... Para promover el progreso de la ciencia y las artes útiles, asegurando por un tiempo limitado a los autores e inventores el derecho exclusivo sobre sus respectivos escritos y descubrimientos"


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Artículo II, Sección 2

"El Presidente debe ... tener poder, por y con el consejo y consentimiento del Senado, para crear tratados, siempre y cuando las dos terceras partes de los senadores presentes coinciden, y él propondrá y por y con el consejo y consentimiento del Senado, nombrará a embajadores, otros ministros públicos y cónsules, jueces del Tribunal supremo y todos los demás funcionarios de los Estados Unidos cuyas designaciones no estén prescritas en este , y que serán establecidos por ley: pero el Congreso podrá intervenir por ley y asignar la designación de los funcionarios inferiores, que considere convenientes, al Presidente solo, a los tribunales de justicia, o en los jefes de los departamentos. "


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Artículo I, Sección 2

"... representantes y los impuestos directos se prorratearán entre los distintos Estados que formen parte de esta Unión, de acuerdo con su población respectiva, la cual se determinará sumando al número total de personas libres, incluyendo las obligadas a prestar servicios durante cierto término de años y excluyendo a los indios no gravados, y tres quintas partes de todas las personas restantes. El recuento deberá hacerse dentro de los tres años después de la primera sesión del Congreso de los Estados Unidos y en lo sucesivo cada diez años en la forma que por ley directa el número de representantes no excederá de uno por cada treinta mil, pero cada Estado tendrá por lo menos un representante; y hasta que se efectúe dicho recuento, el Estado de New Hampshire tendrá derecho a elegir tres, Massachusetts ocho, Rhode-Island y las Plantaciones de Providence uno, Connecticut cinco, Nueva York seis, Nueva Jersey cuatro, Pennsylvania ocho, Delaware uno, Maryland seis,Virginia diez, Carolina del Norte cinco, Carolina del Sur cinco, y Georgia tres."


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Artículo VI

"... Los Senadores y representantes ya mencionados, y los miembros de las distintas legislaturas locales y todos los funcionarios ejecutivos y judiciales, tanto de Estados Unidos como de los diversos Estados, se obligarán mediante juramento o promesa, para apoyar esta Constitución, pero ninguna prueba religiosa nunca se exigirá como condición para ocupar ningún empleo o mandato público de los Estados Unidos ".


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Artículo III, Sección 2

"El Poder Judicial se extenderá a todos los casos, de Derecho y Equidad, que surjan bajo esta Constitución, las leyes de los Estados Unidos y de los tratados creados, o que se creén bajo su autoridad; - a todos los casos relativos a embajadores, otros ministros públicos y cónsules; - a todos los casos de almirantazgo y jurisdicción marítima; - a controversias en que los Estados Unidos sean una Parte; - a las Controversias entre dos o más Estados; - entre un Estado y los ciudadanos de otro Estado, - entre ciudadanos de diferentes Estados, - entre ciudadanos del mismo Estado que reclamen tierras en virtud de concesiones de diferentes Estados y entre un Estado o los ciudadanos del mismo y Estados extranjeros, ciudadanos o súbditos...."


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Artículo II, Sección 1

"... En Caso de Destitución del Presidente, o de su muerte, renuncia o incapacidad para ejercer los derechos y deberes del referido cargo, éste será ocupado por el Vicepresidente y el Congreso puede preveer mediante una ley el caso de separación, muerte, renuncia o incapacidad, tanto del Presidente y el Vicepresidente, declarando qué Funcionario ejercerá las funciones de Presidente, y tal Funcionario deberá actuar en consecuencia, hasta que la incapacidad cese o un Presidente haya sido electo."


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Artículo IV, Sección 3

"Los nuevos Estados podran ser admitidos por el Congreso a está Unión; pero ningún nuevo Estado se podrá formar ni erigirse dentro de los limites de otro Estado; ni un Estado constituirse mediante la reunión de dos o más Estados o partes de otros Estados, sin el consentimiento de las legislaturas de los Estados en cuestión, así como del Congreso .... "


Culminating Document

Constitution of the United States

9/17/1787

Drafted in secret by delegates to the Constitutional Convention during the summer of 1787, this four-page document, signed on September 17, 1787, established the government of the United States.

The Federal Convention convened in the State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation. Because the delegations from only two states were at first present, the members adjourned from day to day until a quorum of seven states was obtained on May 25. Through discussion and debate it became clear by mid-June that, rather than amend the existing Articles, the Convention would draft an entirely new frame of government.

All through the summer, in closed sessions, the delegates debated, and redrafted the articles of the new Constitution. Among the chief points at issue were how much power to allow the central government, how many representatives in Congress to allow each state, and how these representatives should be elected — directly by the people or by the state legislators. The work of many minds, the Constitution stands as a model of cooperative statesmanship and the art of compromise.

Transcript

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article. I.

Section. 1.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section. 4.

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section. 7.

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the

United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8.

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section. 9.

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section. 10.

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article. II.

Section. 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of

the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section. 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section. 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III.


Section. 1.

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section. 2.

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;— between a State and Citizens of another State,—between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section. 3.

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article. IV.

Section. 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the

Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section. 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section. 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

Article. V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.


Article. VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article. VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

Attest William Jackson Secretary

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

G°. Washington
Presidt and deputy from Virginia

Delaware
Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom

Maryland
James McHenry
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
Danl. Carroll

Virginia
John Blair
James Madison Jr.

North Carolina
Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson

South Carolina
J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler

Georgia
William Few
Abr Baldwin
New Hampshire
John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts
Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King

Connecticut
Wm. Saml. Johnson
Roger Sherman

New York
Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey
Wil: Livingston
David Brearley
Wm. Paterson
Jona: Dayton

Pensylvania
B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robt. Morris
Geo. Clymer
Thos. FitzSimons
Jared Ingersoll
James Wilson
Gouv Morris
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 1667751
Full Citation: Constitution of the United States; 9/17/1787; The Constitution of the United States, 9/17/1787 - 9/17/1787; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building,Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/constitution, September 15, 2019]


Constitution of the United States

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Constitution of the United States

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Constitution of the United States

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Constitution of the United States

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Conclusion

La Constitución en Acción

Seeing the Big Picture

Usted ha demostrado la Constitución en acción! Considere los documentos que usted ha visto. ¿Cuáles son algunos de los principales temas o "grandes ideas" que se encuentran en la Constitución?

Your Response




Document

Population Schedule for the 1930 Census Listing Mikael Amerikian

4/7/1930

This page from the Fifteenth Census includes houses located on Oxford Street in Portland, Maine. This form includes a wealth of information about the individuals recorded, including place of birth, occupation, and military service.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of the Census.
National Archives Identifier: 598218
Full Citation: Population Schedule for the 1930 Census Listing Mikael Amerikian; 4/7/1930; Records of the Bureau of the Census, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/1930-census-amerikian, September 15, 2019]


Population Schedule for the 1930 Census Listing Mikael Amerikian

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Document

Senate Resolution 301 of the 83rd Congress

7/30/1954

Senator Joseph McCarthy became chairman of the Committee on Government Operations and its Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in the late 1940s, looking into improper Government activity. His targets included Government employees accused of being Communists.

McCarthy led televised investigations, forcing people to defend themselves in front of the American public. Some Members of Congress disagreed with McCarthy’s accusations and interrogation tactics and passed a resolution to censure him.

Transcript

Resolved, That the Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, failed to cooperate with the Subcommittee on Privileges and Elections of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration in clearing up matters referred to that subcommittee which concerned his conduct as a Senator and affected the honor of the Senate and, instead, repeatedly abused the subcommittee and its members who were trying to carry out assigned duties, thereby obstructing the constitutional processes of the Senate, and that this conduct of the Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, is contrary to senatorial traditions and is hereby condemned.

Sec 2. The Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, in writing to the chairman of the Select Committee to Study Censure Charges (Mr. Watkins) after the Select Committee had issued its report and before the report was presented to the Senate charging three members of the Select Committee with "deliberate deception" and "fraud" for failure to disqualify themselves; in stating to the press on November 4, 1954, that the special Senate session that was to begin November 8, 1954, was a "lynch-party"; in repeatedly describing this special Senate session as a "lynch bee" in a nationwide television and radio show on November 7, 1954; in stating to the public press on November 13, 1954, that the chairman of the Select Committee (Mr. Watkins) was guilty of "the most unusual, most cowardly things I've ever heard of" and stating further: "I expected he would be afraid to answer the questions, but didn't think he'd be stupid enough to make a public statement"; and in characterizing the said committee as the "unwitting handmaiden," "involuntary agent" and "attorneys-in-fact" of the Communist Party and in charging that the said committee in writing its report "imitated Communist methods -- that it distorted, misrepresented, and omitted in its effort to manufacture a plausible rationalization" in support of its recommendations to the Senate, which characterizations and charges were contained in a statement released to the press and inserted in the Congressional Record of November 10, 1954, acted contrary to senatorial ethics and tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute, to obstruct the constitutional processes of the Senate, and to impair its dignity; and such conduct is hereby condemned.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Senate.
National Archives Identifier: 1157557
Full Citation: Senate Resolution 301 of the 83rd Congress; 7/30/1954; Bills and Resolutions Originating in the Senate, 1789 - 2002; Records of the U.S. Senate, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/mccarthy-censure, September 15, 2019]


Senate Resolution 301 of the 83rd Congress

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Document

Drawing for a Game Board

1/5/1904

Lizzie J. Magie, of Brentwood, Maryland, submitted this drawing of her improvement of game-boards in 1904. The object of the game was to amass a much wealth and money as possible. The game was designed to illustrate the principle of a single-tax idea being proposed for use in the United States. Monopoly, patented in 1935, was based on this game.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Patent and Trademark Office.
National Archives Identifier: 595519
Full Citation: Drawing for a Game Board; 1/5/1904; Records of the Patent and Trademark Office, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/drawing-game-board, September 15, 2019]


Drawing for a Game Board

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Document

Presidential Proclamation 94 of September 24, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln suspending the writ of Habeas Corpus.

9/24/1862

Transcript

[page 1]

By the President of the United States of America,

A Proclamation.

Whereas, it has become necessary to call into service not only volunteers but also portions of
the militia of the States by draft in order to suppress the insurrection existing in the United
States, and disloyal persons are not adequately restrained by the ordinary process of law from
hindering this measure and from giving aid and comfort in various ways to the insurrection;

Now, therefore, be it ordered, first, that during the existing insurrection and as a necessary
measure for suppressing the same, all Rebels and Insurgents, their aiders and abettors within the
United States, and all persons discouraging volunteer enlistments, resisting militia drafts, or
guilty of any disloyal practice, affording aid and comfort to Rebels against the authority of the
United States, shall be subject to martial law and liable to trial and punishment by Courts

[page 2]

Martial or Military Commission:

Second. That the Writ of Habeas Corpus is suspended in respect to all persons arrested, or who
are now, or hereafter during the rebellion shall be imprisoned in any fort, camp, arsenal, military
prison, or other place of confinement by any military authority or by the sentence of any Court
Martial or Military Commission.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be
affixed.

Done at the City of Washington this twenty fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the 87th .

[signed] Abraham Lincoln.

[signed] By the President:
William H Seward
Secretary of State.
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 299959
Full Citation: Presidential Proclamation 94 of September 24, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln suspending the writ of Habeas Corpus.; 9/24/1862; General Records of the United States Government, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/presidential-proclamation-94-of-september-24-1862-by-president-abraham-lincoln-suspending-the-writ-of-habeas-corpus, September 15, 2019]


Presidential Proclamation 94 of September 24, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln suspending the writ of Habeas Corpus.

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Presidential Proclamation 94 of September 24, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln suspending the writ of Habeas Corpus.

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Document

State of Maine General Order Number 57

6/27/1837

Following the arrest by British authorities of a state official performing his duties in the contested area of northern Maine, the state’s Adjutant General, A.B. Thompson, issued this general order. It alerted all soldiers in the state to hold themselves in readiness for a call to arms. British authorities often arrested American officials working in the disputed area, usually transporting them to the prison in Fredericton, New Brunswick.
This primary source comes from the Records of Boundary and Claims Commissions and Arbitrations.
National Archives Identifier: 593730
Full Citation: State of Maine General Order Number 57; 6/27/1837; Records of Boundary and Claims Commissions and Arbitrations, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/state-of-maine-general-order-number-57, September 15, 2019]


State of Maine General Order Number 57

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Document

Lyndon Baines Johnson takes Presidential Oath of Office. Jay Gildner, Judge Sarah Hughes, Jack Valenti, Congressman Albert Thomas, Lady Bird Johnson, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Jacqueline Kennedy, Congres

11/22/1963

Following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson became President, taking the oath of office aboard Air Force One. Watching were: Jay Gildner, Judge Sarah Hughes, Jack Valenti, Congressman Albert Thomas, Lady Bird Johnson, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Jacqueline Kennedy, Congressman Jack Brooks, others.
This primary source comes from the Collection JFK-WHP: White House Photographs.
National Archives Identifier: 194235
Full Citation: Photograph WHP-ST-ST1A163; Lyndon Baines Johnson takes Presidential Oath of Office. Jay Gildner, Judge Sarah Hughes, Jack Valenti, Congressman Albert Thomas, Lady Bird Johnson, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Jacqueline Kennedy, Congres; 11/22/1963; Cecil Stoughton's White House Photographs, 1/29/1961 - 12/31/1963; Collection JFK-WHP: White House Photographs, ; John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, MA. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/lbj-oath, September 15, 2019]


Lyndon Baines Johnson takes Presidential Oath of Office. Jay Gildner, Judge Sarah Hughes, Jack Valenti, Congressman Albert Thomas, Lady Bird Johnson, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Jacqueline Kennedy, Congres

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Document

Message of President John Adams nominating John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

1/20/1801

President John Adams sent this message nominating John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Transcript

Gentlemen of the Senate

I nominate John Marshall Secretary of State to be Chief Justice of the United States in the place of John Jay who has declined his appointment

John Adams

United States
Jan 20 1801
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Senate.
National Archives Identifier: 306290
Full Citation: Message of President John Adams nominating John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; 1/20/1801; Anson McCook Collection of Presidential Signatures, 1789 - 1975; Records of the U.S. Senate, ; Center for Legislative Archives, Washington, D.C.. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/marshall-nomination, September 15, 2019]


Message of President John Adams nominating John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

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Document

Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

12/2/1823

President James Monroe gave this speech at the start of the first session of the 18th Congress. The message of the speech became known as the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe warned European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere — stating that involvement by European powers in the Western Hemisphere would be perceived as a threat to the United States. Select pages of the speech are shown.

The Monroe Doctrine is the best known U.S. policy toward the Western Hemisphere. Buried in this routine annual message to Congress, the doctrine warns European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs. The doctrine was conceived to meet major concerns of the moment, but it soon became the dominant belief about U.S. policy in the Western Hemisphere.

The Monroe Doctrine was invoked in 1865 when the U.S. government exerted diplomatic and military pressure in support of the Mexican President Benito Juárez. This support enabled Juárez to lead a successful revolt against the Emperor Maximilian, who had been placed on the throne by the French government.

Almost 40 years later, in 1904, European creditors of a number of Latin American countries threatened armed intervention to collect debts. President Theodore Roosevelt promptly proclaimed the right of the United States to exercise an “international police power” to curb such “chronic wrongdoing.” As a result, U.S. Marines were sent into Santo Domingo in 1904, Nicaragua in 1911, and Haiti in 1915, ostensibly to keep the Europeans out. Other Latin American nations viewed these interventions with misgiving, and relations between the “great Colossus of the North” and its southern neighbors remained strained for many years.

In 1962, the Monroe Doctrine was invoked symbolically when the Soviet Union began to build missile-launching sites in Cuba. With the support of the Organization of American States, President John F. Kennedy threw a naval and air quarantine around the island. After several tense days, the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw the missiles and dismantle the sites. Subsequently, the United States dismantled several of its obsolete air and missile bases in Turkey.

Transcript

5.

… long defending with the French Government on several important subjects, and particularly for a just indemnify for losses sustained in the late Wars, by the Citizens of the United States, under unjustifiable seizures and confiscations of their property, has not as yet, had the desired effect.  As this claim rests on the same principle with others which have been admitted by the French Government it is not perceived on what just ground it can be rejected.  A Minister will be immediately appointed to proceed to France and resume the negotiation on this and other subjects which may arise between the two Nations.

At the proposal of the Russian Imperial Government, made through the Minister of the Emperor, residing here, a full power and instructions have been transmitted to the Minister of the United States at St. Petersburg, to arrange by amicable negotiation, the respective right, and interests of the two Nations on the North West Coast of this continent.  A similar proposal had been made by His Imperial Majesty, to the Government of Great Britain, which has likewise been acceded to.  The Government of the United States has been desirous by this friendly proceeding, of manifesting the great value which they have invariably attached to the friendship of the Emperor, and their solicitude to cultivate the best understanding with his

Government.  In the discussions to which this interest has given rise, and in the arrangements by which they may terminate, the occasion has been judged proper, for asserting as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American Continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power.

Since the close of the last Session of Congress, the Commissioners and Arbitrators for ascertaining and determining the amount of indemnification which may be due to Citizens of the United States under the decisions of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia, in conformity to the Convention concluded at St. Petersburg on the 12th of July 1822, have assembled in this City, and organized themselves as a Board for the performance of the duties assigned to them by that Treaty. The Commission constituted under the 11th Article of the Treaty of the 22nd of February 1819 between the United States and Spain, is also in Session here; and, as the ter of three years limited by the Treaty, for the execution of the trust, will expire before the period of the next regular meeting of Congress, the attention of the Legislature …

[pages omitted]

29.

It was stated at the commencement of the last session, that in great effort was then  making in Spain and Portugal to improve the condition of the people of their countries, and that it appeared to be conducted with extraordinary moderation. If need scarcely be remarked, that the result has been, so far, very different from what was then anticipated. Of events in that quarter of the Globe with which we have so much intercourse, and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectators. The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly, in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers, in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken any part nor does it comport with our policy so to do. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced, that we resent injuries, or make preparation for our defence. With the movements in this Hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in the respect from that of America. The difference


30.

proceeds from that which exists in their respective Governments, and to the defense of our own which has been atchieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdoms of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe it therefore to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers, to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this Hemisphere, as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing Colonies on dependences of any European power, we have not interfered, and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their Independence, and maintained it, and whose Independence we have, on great consideration, and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interpositions for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner, their destiny, by any European power, in any other light, than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition towards the United States. In the war between those new Governments and Spain, we declared our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and to this we have adhered, and shall continue to adhere provided no change shall occur, which in the judgement of the competent authorities of this Government shall

31.

make a corresponding change, on the part of the United States, indispensable to their security.

The late events in Spain and Portugal, show that Europe is still unsettled. Of this important fact, no stronger proof can be adduced, than that the allied powers should have thought it proper, on any principle satisfactory to themselves, to have interposed by force, in the interval concerns of Spain. To what extent such interposition may be carried on the same principle, is a question, in which all Independent powers, whose Governments differ from theirs, are interested; even those most remote, and surely none more so than the United States. Our policy in regard to Europe, which adopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the Globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers; to consider the Government de facto, as the legitimate for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, firm and manly policy, meeting in all instances, the just claims of every power; submitting to injuries from none. But, in regard to those continents, circumstances are eminently and conspicuously different. It ...
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Senate.
National Archives Identifier: 306420
Full Citation: Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine); 12/2/1823; President's Messages during the 18th Congress; Presidential Messages, 1789 - 1875; Records of the U.S. Senate, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/monroe-doctrine, September 15, 2019]


Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

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Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

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Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

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Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

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Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

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Message of President James Monroe at the commencement of the first session of the 18th Congress (The Monroe Doctrine)

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Document

Supreme Court Building

The neoclassical U.S. Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., was designed by architects Cass Gilbert, Jr., and John R. Rockart. Although a coequal branch of the Government, the Supreme Court was not provided with a home of its own until 1935. Chief Justice and former President William Howard Taft persuaded Congress to authorize the building.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Archives and Records Administration.
National Archives Identifier: 594954
Full Citation: Photograph 64-M-54; Supreme Court Building; Photographic Records Made By The National Archives, 1860 - 1960; Records of the National Archives and Records Administration, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/supreme-court-building, September 15, 2019]


Supreme Court Building

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Document

Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona

6/13/1966

In 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested in Arizona and charged with kidnapping, robbery, and rape. When questioned by police, Miranda confessed. He was tried and convicted based on his confession. Miranda appealed his conviction to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in 1966 that statements made by the accused may not be admitted in court without procedural safeguards. Page 31 from the decision describes two of those safeguards—the accused’s right to remain silent and to have an attorney present during questioning. Selected pages are shown.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Supreme Court of the United States.
National Archives Identifier: 597564
Full Citation: Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona; 6/13/1966; Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/opinion-of-the-court-by-chief-justice-earl-warren-in-the-case-of-miranda-v-arizona, September 15, 2019]


Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona

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Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona

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Document

What is sabotage? Sabotage is treason!

5/12/1945

This poster was created by the War Production Board in the Office for Emergency Management during World War II. The Board regulated wartime production and allocation of essential materials and fuel.
This primary source comes from the Records of the War Production Board.
National Archives Identifier: 535191
Full Citation: What is sabotage? Sabotage is treason!; 5/12/1945; Records of the War Production Board, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/what-is-sabotage-sabotage-is-treason, September 15, 2019]


What is sabotage? Sabotage is treason!

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Document

Letter from Sheryl Byland to President Dwight D. Eisenhower Regarding American Flag Design Suggestion

10/1958

Sheryl Byland drew for President Dwight D. Eisenhower her suggestion for a new national flag when Alaska would become the 49th state.
This primary source comes from the Collection DDE-WHCF: White House Central Files (Eisenhower Administration).
National Archives Identifier: 594335
Full Citation: Letter from Sheryl Byland to President Dwight D. Eisenhower Regarding American Flag Design Suggestion; 10/1958; Collection DDE-WHCF: White House Central Files (Eisenhower Administration), . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/sheryl-byland, September 15, 2019]


Letter from Sheryl Byland to President Dwight D. Eisenhower Regarding American Flag Design Suggestion

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Letter from Sheryl Byland to President Dwight D. Eisenhower Regarding American Flag Design Suggestion

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Letter from Sheryl Byland to President Dwight D. Eisenhower Regarding American Flag Design Suggestion

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Document

Letter from LeRoy M. Satrom

5/2/1970

In the midst of Vietnam War, President Nixon had decided to initiate the Cambodian campaign. This apparent expansion of the Vietnam War detonated an explosion of antiwar activity that escalated to a national crisis when four students were shot at a protest at Kent State University in Ohio.

Students protesting the Cambodian incursion had been unruly and violent for days when the town mayor, LeRoy M. Satrom, declared a state of emergency and sent this letter requesting troops from the Ohio National Guard to help reestablish order.

There were over 1,300 armed troops, armored personnel carriers, mortar launchers, and helicopters on the Kent State University campus on May 4, 1970. Ohio National Guard troops opened fire on unarmed students. Nine were wounded—one paralyzed for life—and four were killed.
This primary source comes from the Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards.
National Archives Identifier: 596839
Full Citation: Letter from LeRoy M. Satrom; 5/2/1970; Records of the Kent State University Investigative Team, 1970 - 1970; Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/letter-from-leroy-m-satrom, September 15, 2019]


Letter from LeRoy M. Satrom

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Document

Tennessee's Ratification of the 19th Amendment

8/24/1920

This is a statement, signed by the Governor of Tennessee in 1920, verifying that the state legislature ratified the 19th Amendment proposed by the U.S. Congress. Tennessee was the 36th out of the existing 48 states to ratify this amendment, clinching the passage of the amendment allowing women the right to vote.

After Congress passed and proposed a women's suffrage amendment, three-fourths of states (36 at that time) had to ratify the 19th Amendment before it could be added to the Constitution. Many states quickly approved the 19th amendment. By the end of March 1920, only one additional state was needed for ratification. On August 18, 1920, after calling a special session of the state legislature, Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment.
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 1501900
Full Citation: Tennessee's Ratification of the 19th Amendment; 8/24/1920; Ratified Amendments, 1795 - 1992; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/tn-ratification-19th-amendment, September 15, 2019]


Tennessee's Ratification of the 19th Amendment

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Document

Senator Lyndon B. Johnson's Oath of Office

1/5/1955

This is the oath of office signed by Lyndon Johnson in 1955 when he was elected to the Senate. From his service in the Senate, he became Vice President and then President in 1963. Government officials are required to take an oath of office. Since the first law passed by Congress in 1789, all Members of Congress, all Federal officials, and all state executives, legislatures, and judiciaries have taken an oath to support the Constitution.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. Senate.
National Archives Identifier: 1157526
Full Citation: Senator Lyndon B. Johnson's Oath of Office; 1/5/1955; Records of the U.S. Senate, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/senator-lyndon-b-johnsons-oath-of-office, September 15, 2019]


Senator Lyndon B. Johnson's Oath of Office

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Document

Delaware's Ratification of the U.S. Constitution

1787

This is the certificate of the Delaware ratification of the Constitution in 1787. Once the Constitution was written and signed by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention, it was sent to the 13 states for approval.

Delaware was the first state to ratify it, on December 7, 1787, by a unanimous vote, 30 - 0. It took 10 months for the first nine states to approve the Constitution. This endorsed ratification of the Constitution by the Delaware convention includes the names of the state deputies, probably written by a clerk. The signature of the President of Delaware's convention, Thomas Collins, attests to the validity of the document, which also carries the state seal in its left margin.

Delaware's speediness thwarted Pennsylvania's attempt to be first to ratify in the hope of securing the seat of the National Government in Pennsylvania. The Constitution went into effect in 1788, after three-fourths of the original 13 states had ratified it.

Text adapted from "Ratification of the Constitution" in the September 1987 National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication Social Education.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention.
National Archives Identifier: 1503374
Full Citation: Delaware's Ratification of the U.S. Constitution; 1787; Official Records of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, 1785 - 1787; Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/delawares-ratification-us-constitution, September 15, 2019]


Delaware's Ratification of the U.S. Constitution

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