The online tool for teaching with documents, from the National Archives

The Impact of Westward Expansion on Native American Communities

Finding a Sequence

All documents and text associated with this activity are printed below, followed by a worksheet for student responses.

Introduction

The westward movement of Americans following the Civil War influenced Native American communities who were living west of the Mississippi River. You will explore a variety of documents to get a sense of the issues faced by Native Americans due to settlement and the U.S. Government’s Indian policy.

Closely examine each document and then place them in chronological order according to when they were created.


Name:
Class:

Worksheet

The Impact of Westward Expansion on Native American Communities

Finding a Sequence

Examine the documents in this activity. Put the corresponding document numbers in order using the list below. Write your conclusion response in the space provided.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11



1

Activity Element

Poster Advertising "Indian Territory That Garden of the World, Open for Homestead and Pre-Emption" in Current Day Oklahoma

Page 2



2

Activity Element

Description of Stock Stolen by Indians from David Cottner, Manuel Ramaro, and Louis Bremer

Page 2



3

Activity Element

Conditions of the Indian Tribes

Page 2



4

Activity Element

A Hopi (Moqui) petition signed by all the Chiefs and headmen of the tribe asking the Federal Government to give them title to their lands instead of individually allotting each tribal member.

Page 1



5

Activity Element

Dawes Act of 1887

Page 1



6

Activity Element

Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations

Page 1



7

Activity Element

Photograph of a Dry-Land Farmer and His Family on the Flathead Reservation Near Niarada, Montana

Page 1



8

Activity Element

The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory

Page 1



9

Activity Element

Fort Laramie Treaty

Page 1



10

Activity Element

Column of cavalry, artillery, and wagons, commanded by Gen. George A. Custer, crossing the plains of Dakota Territory. By W. H. Illingworth, 1874 Black Hills expedition

Page 2



11

Activity Element

First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 2



Conclusion

The Impact of Westward Expansion on Native American Communities

Finding a Sequence

What issues did Native American communities face because of new western settlement? How did the U.S. Government respond to these issues? In one sentence, summarize the impact that westward expansion had on Native American communities in the West. Be prepared to share your answers with the class!

Your Response




Document

Photograph of a Dry-Land Farmer and His Family on the Flathead Reservation Near Niarada, Montana

9/16/1921

This Native American farming family sat for their portrait in front of a dwelling on the Flathead Reservation near Niarada, Montana, on September 16, 1921. They employed “dryland farm management,” an agricultural method for growing winter wheat and other crops in arid land.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
National Archives Identifier: 293346
Full Citation: Photograph of a Dry-Land Farmer and His Family on the Flathead Reservation Near Niarada, Montana; 9/16/1921; Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/photograph-of-a-dryland-farmer-and-his-family-on-the-flathead-reservation-near-niarada-montana, June 25, 2019]


Photograph of a Dry-Land Farmer and His Family on the Flathead Reservation Near Niarada, Montana

Page 1



Document

The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory

3/4/1907

This is one page from the Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory, published on March 4, 1907. It records individual roll numbers and other pertinent information. The Federal Government used these registers to distribute 138 million acres of tribal land. After apportioning more than 50 million acres to Native Americans, the Government made the rest available to non-native peoples for settlement.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
National Archives Identifier: 300321
Full Citation: The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory; 3/4/1907; Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/the-final-rolls-of-citizens-and-freedmen-of-the-five-civilized-tribes-in-indian-territory, June 25, 2019]


The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory

Page 1



Document

Conditions of the Indian Tribes

1/26/1867

The Joint Special Committee issued this report on January 26, 1867. It found that the Indian population was rapidly decreasing because of White aggression, destruction of game, and loss of land.

Text adapted from “Evaluating Perspectives on Westward Expansion: Weighing the Evidence” in the special "Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources" November/December 2011 issue of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication Social Education.
This primary source comes from the Publications of the U.S. Government.
National Archives Identifier: 593576
Full Citation: Conditions of the Indian Tribes; 1/26/1867; Government Publications, 1861 - 1992; Publications of the U.S. Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/conditions-of-the-indian-tribes, June 25, 2019]


Conditions of the Indian Tribes

Page 1



Conditions of the Indian Tribes

Page 2



Conditions of the Indian Tribes

Page 3



Conditions of the Indian Tribes

Page 4



Document

First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

6/27/1876

Two days after the battle of Little Bighorn, General Alfred H. Terry, Custer's commanding officer, confirmed the death of Custer and more than 250 of his men. Gathered from the reports of officers who were entrenched in a defensive position on the bluffs overlooking the valley, and from the trail of bodies Terry himself encountered on June 27, he sketched the movements of Custer and his men from June 22 through June 25.

He compiled this report. A civilian scout carried it to Fort Ellis, Montana, the nearest telegraph office, where it was relayed first to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum in Chicago, then to Army headquarters in Washington, DC.

There was a break in the telegraph line between Fort Ellis and Chicago causing a delay in service; and so, the highest officials in the U.S. Army in Philadelphia, attending the grand Centennial Exposition, learned about Custer's fate not from this report, but from a July 6th newspaper story.

Transcript

9352
THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
No. 206 [illegible due to tear] Got

The rules of this Company require that all messages received for transmission shall be written on the message blanks of the Company, under and subject to the conditions printed thereon, which conditions have been agreed to by the sender of the following message.
A. R. BREWER, Secretary.
WILLIAM ORTON, Prest.     

820 p.m.

Dated, Headquarters Dept of Dakota
To Camp on Little big horn river

Rec'd at cor. Lasalle and Washington Sts.,
CHICAGO, Ills.
July 6 1876

June 27th

To Adjutant Gen of military Division of the Missouri at Chicago Ill=    

it is my painfull duty to report that day before yesterday the twenty fifth inst a great disaster overtook Gen Custer & The troops under his Command at twelve oclock of the twenty second he started with his whole regiment & a strong detachment of scouts & guards from the mouth of the Rosebud proceeding up that river about twenty miles he struck a very heavy Indian trail which had previously been discovered

Russell Brothers' Print 17 Ross Street, N.Y.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
No. 206 om
2 [circled]

The rules of this Company require that all messages received for transmission shall be written on the message blanks of the Company, under and subject to the conditions printed thereon, which conditions have been agreed to by the sender of the following message.
A.R. BREWER, Secretary.
WILLIAM ORTON, Prest.  

Dated, [blank]
To [blank]

Rec'd at cor. Lsalle and Washington Sts.,
CHICAGO Ills.
[blank] 187

[Note: Preceding text is printed at the top of every page but not filled out. Only those fields filled out will be transcribed on the pages that follow.]

& pursuing it found that it led as it was supposed that it would lead to the Little big horn river here he found a village of almost Enexampled [sic] Extent & at once attacked it with that portion of his force which was immediately at hand major Reno with three Companies a g & m of the regiment was sent into the valley of the stream at the point where the trail struct [sic] it General

Russell Brothers' Print, 17 Ross Street, N.Y. [Note: This text is printed at the bottom of every page. This will not be transcribed on pages that follow.]



3 [circled]

Custer with five Companies C E F I & L [in pencil: attempted] all ample to enter it about three miles lower down [illegible] forded the river Charged Down its left bank dismounted & fought on foot until finally Completely overwhelmed by numbers he he was compelled to mount recross the river & seek a refuge on the high bluffs which overlooked its right bank Just as he recrossed Capt Belton who with three Companies D H &



4 [circled]

K was come two miles to the left of Reno when the action Commenced but who had been ordered by Genl Custer to return came to the river & rightly Concluding that it was useless for his force to attempt to renew the fight in the valley he joined Reno on the bluffs Capt McDougall with his company B was at first at some distance In the rear with a train of pack mules he



5 [circled]

also came up to reno soon this United force was nearly surrounded by Indians many of whom armed with rifles occupied positions which commanded the ground held by the cavalry ground from which there was no escape rifle pits were dug & the fight was maintained though with heavy loss from about half past two oclock of the twenty fifth till Six oclock of the twenty sixth when the Indians withdrew from the valley taking



6

with them their village. Of the movements of Gen Custer & the five Companies under his immediate Command scarcely anything is known from those who witnessed them for no officer or soldier who accompanied him has yet been found alive. His trail from the point where Reno crossed the stream passes along & in the rear of the Crest of the Bluffs on the right bank for nearly or quite three miles then it Comes



7

down to the bank of the river but at once diverges from it as if he had unsuccessfully attempted to cross then turns upon itself almost Completes a circle & closes. It is marked by the remains of this officers & men the bodies of his horses some of them bobbed [inserted in pencil: dropped] along the path others heaped where halts appear to have been made there is abundant Evidence that a gallant resistance was offered by the



8

troops but they were beset on all sides by overpowering numbers. The officers Known to be killed are gen Custer Captains Keogh Gates & Custer Lieuts Cook Smith McIntosh Calhoun porter Hodgeson Sturgis & Reilly of the cavalry Lieut Crittenden of the twentieth infantry & acting asst surgeon Dewolf Lieut Harrington of the Cavalry & asst Surgeon Lord are missing. Capt Benton & Lieut Varnum of the Cavalry are slightly wounded Mr Boston Custer A



9 [circled]

Letter "B"

[in right margin: C 135P]

Brother & Mr Reed a nephew of Genl Custer were with him & were Killed no other officers than those whom I have named are among the Killed wounded & missing. It is Impossible as yet to obtain a nominal [inserted above in pencil: reliable] list of the Enlisted men who were Killed & wounded but the number of killed including officers must reach two hundred & fifty the number of wounded is fifty one

[pencil line across page]

At the mouth of the



10 [circled]

Rosebud I informed Genl Custer that I should take the supply steamer Far-West up the yellow stone to the ferry genl Gibbons Column over the river that I should personally accompany that Column & that it would in all probability reach the mouth of the little big horn on The twenty sixth inst. The steamer reach Genl Gibbons troops near the mouth of the big horn Early in the morning of the twenty fourth

[written in pencil at right margin C1970]



11

[written in pencil at right margin] C140PW]

& at four oclock in the afternoon all his men & animals were across the yellow stone at five oclock The column consisting of five Companies of the seventh Infantry four companies of the second Cavalry & a battery of three gatling guns marched out to & across Tullochs Creek starting soon after five oclock In the morning of the twenty fifth the Infantry made a march of twenty two miles over the most difficult



12

[at right margin C145P]

Country which I have ever seen in order that scouts might be sent into the valley of the Little big horn the Cavalry with the battery was then pushed on thirteen of fourteen miles further reaching camp at midnight the scouts were set out at half past four on the morning of the twenty sixth the scout discovered three Indians who were at first supposed to be sioux but when over taken they proved to



13

[at right margin C 150 PW]

be crows who had been with Gen Custer they brought the first intelligence of the battle their story was not credited it was supposed that some fighting perhaps severe fighting had taken place but it was not believed that disaster Could have overtaken so large a force as twelve Companies of Cavalry, the infantry which had broken camp very Early soon came up & the whole Column Entered & moved up the valley of the



14 [circled]

[at right margin C 154P]

Little Big Horn during the afternoon Efforts were made to send scouts through to what was supposed to be Gen Custers position & to obtain Information of the Condition of affairs but those who were sent out were driven back by parties of Indians who In increasing numbers were seen hovering in Gen Gibbons front at twenty minutes before nine oclock in the Evening the Infantry had marched between twenty nine & thirty miles the



15 [circled]

[at right margin C156 [illegible]]

men were very weary & day light was faling [sic] the Column was therefore halted for the night at a point about Eleven miles in a straight line above the mouth of the stream this morning the movement was resumed & after a march of nine miles Major Renos Entrenchment position was reached the withdrawal of the Indians from around Renos Command & from the valley was undoubtedly caused by the appearance of Gen Gibbons troops



16

[right margin C-2 PW]

Major Reno & Capt Benton both of whom are officers of great Experience accustomed to see large masses of mounted men Estimated the number of Indians engaged at not less than twenty five hundred other officers think that the numbers was greater than this the village in the valley was about three miles in length & about a mile in width besides the lodges proper a great number of temporary brush wood shelter was found



17 [circled]

[at right margin C205P]

In it Indicating that many men besides its proper Inhabitants had gathered together there Major Reno is very confident that there were a number of white men fighting with the Indians it is believed that the loss of the Indians was large I have as yet recieved [sic] no official reports in regard to the battle but what is stated in as gathered from the officers who were on the ground then & from those who



18

have been over it since

Alfred H Terry
Brig Genl

1295 Collect 10365 & 12780 Collect

Govt rate by messenger to Boseman Mont via Helena Mont

July 5th "no extra words counted"

[handwritten C206 PW]

[circular stamp] RECEIVED
JUL
8 ["7" handwritten over the 8]
1876
MIL. [illegible] V. MO.
This primary source comes from the Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands.
National Archives Identifier: 301976
Full Citation: First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago; 6/27/1876; Special Files of Letters Received, 1863 - 1885; Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/report-battle-little-bighorn, June 25, 2019]


First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 1



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 2



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 3



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 4



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 5



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 6



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 7



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 8



First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

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First Report of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, From Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Montana, to Assistant Adjutant General R.C. Drum, Chicago

Page 18



Document

Dawes Act of 1887

2/8/1887

This "Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations" emphasized the treatment of Native Americans as individuals rather than as members of tribes.

It was different than the earlier Federal Indian policy (1870 to 1900) of removal, treaties, reservations, and war. This new thinking sought to break up reservations by granting land allotments to individual Native Americans. The idea was that if a person adopted white clothing and ways, and was responsible for his own farm, he would gradually drop his "Indian-ness" and be assimilated into white American culture. It would then no longer be necessary for the government to oversee Indian welfare in the paternalistic way it had before, or provide meager annuities that seemed to keep the Indian in a subservient and poverty-stricken position.

In the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts, and also known as the General Allotment Act, Congress allowed for the President to break up reservation land, which was held in common by the members of a tribe, into small allotments to be parceled out to individuals. Native Americans registering on a tribal "roll" were granted allotments of reservation land.

The purpose of the Dawes Act and the subsequent acts that extended its initial provisions was purportedly to protect Indian property rights, particularly during the land rushes of the 1890s, but in many instances the results were vastly different. The land allotted to the Indians included desert or near-desert lands unsuitable for farming. In addition, the techniques of self-sufficient farming were much different from their tribal way of life. Many Indians did not want to take up agriculture, and those who did want to farm could not afford the tools, animals, seed, and other supplies necessary to get started. There were also problems with inheritance. Often young children inherited allotments that they could not farm because they had been sent away to boarding schools. Multiple heirs also caused a problem — when several people inherited an allotment, the size of the holdings became too small for efficient farming.

Some groups were exempt from the law: Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles; Osage, Miamies and Peorias; Sacs and Foxes; those "in the Indian Territory"; the Seneca Nation of New York Indians in the State of New York; and "that strip of territory in the State of Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation on the south."

Subsequent events, however, extended the act's provisions to these groups as well. In 1893 President Grover Cleveland appointed the Dawes Commission to negotiate with the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles, who were known as the Five Civilized Tribes. As a result of these negotiations, several acts were passed that allotted a share of common property to members of the Five Civilized Tribes in exchange for abolishing their tribal governments and recognizing state and Federal laws. In order to receive the allotted land, members were to enroll with the Office of Indian Affairs (later renamed the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)). Once enrolled, the individual's name went on the "Dawes rolls." This process assisted the BIA and the Secretary of the Interior in determining the eligibility of individual members for land distribution.

Transcript

Forty-Ninth Congress of the United States of America; 
At the Second Session,

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the sixth day of December, one thousand eight hundred and eight-six.

An Act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations, and to extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows:

To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section;
To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section;
To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and
To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment of the lands embraced in any reservation, one-sixteenth of a section: 

Provided, That in case there is not sufficient land in any of said reservations to allot lands to each individual of the classes above named in quantities as above provided, the lands embraced in such reservation or reservations shall be allotted to each individual of each of said classes pro rata in accordance with the provisions of this act: And provided further, That where the treaty or act of Congress setting apart such reservation provides the allotment of lands in severalty in quantities in excess of those herein provided, the President, in making allotments upon such reservation, shall allot the lands to each individual Indian belonging thereon in quantity as specified in such treaty or act: And provided further, That when the lands allotted are only valuable for grazing
[pages ommitted]

separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted the habits of civilized life, is hereby declared to be a citizen of the United States, and is entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens, whether said Indian has been or not, by birth or otherwise, a member of any tribe of Indians within the territorial limits of the United States without in any manner affecting the right of any such Indian to tribal or other property.

Sec. 7. That in cases where the use of water for irrigation is necessary to render the lands within any Indian reservation available for agricultural purposes, the Secretary of the Interior be, and he is hereby, authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary to secure a just and equal distribution thereof among the Indians residing upon any such reservation; and no oother appropriation or grant of water by any riparian proprietor shall permitted to the damage of any other riparian proprietor.

Sec. 8. That the provisions of this act shall not extend to the territory occupied by the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, and Osage, Miamies and Peorias, and Sacs and Foxes, in the Indian Territory, nor to any of the reservations of the Seneca Nation of New York Indians in the State of New York, nor to that strip of territory in the State of Nebraska adjoining the Sioux Nation on the south added by executive order.

Sec. 9. That for the purpose of making the surveys and resurveys mentioned in section two of this act, there be, and hereby is, appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, to be repaid proportionately out of the proceeds of the sales of such land as may be acquired from the Indians under the provisions of this act.

Sec. 10. That nothing in this act contained shall be so canstrued to affect the right and power of Congress to grant the right of way through any lands granted to an Indian, or a tribe of Indians, for railroads or other highways, or telegraph lines, for the public use, or condemn such lands to public uses, upon making just compensation.

Sec. 11. That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prevent the removal of the Southern Ute Indians from their present reservation in Southwestern Colorado to a new reservation by and with consent of a majority of the adult male members of said tribe.

Approved, February, 8, 1887.

[Endorsements]
This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 5641587
Full Citation: Dawes Act of 1887; 2/8/1887; Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789 - 2011; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/dawes-act, June 25, 2019]


Dawes Act of 1887

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Dawes Act of 1887

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Document

A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

3/27/1894 - 4/10/1894

The Hopi people of the "Moqui" Villages in the Arizona Territory sent this petition to “the Washington Chiefs" in March, 1894. Signed by all the Chiefs and headmen of the tribe, with a symbol for every family, the document asks the federal government to give the Hopi title to their lands instead of individually allotting each tribal member a plot, as had been prescribed by the Dawes Act of 1887. The Moqui worried about losing their matriarchal way of life and cooperative management of resources that helped them adapt to their environment.

Referring to surveyors, the petition said: “During the last two years, strangers have looked over our land with spy-glasses and made marks upon it.…None of us were asked that it should be measured into separate lots, and given to individuals for this would cause confusion.” The document is written in the hand of Thomas Keam, who first came west with the military to move the Navajo people from Arizona to New Mexico, but later established a trading post and worked with Hopi and Navajo leaders to maintain peace between them, new settlers, and American authorities.

Text adapted from “Evaluating Perspectives on Westward Expansion: Weighing the Evidence” in the special "Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources" November/December 2011 issue of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication Social Education.

Transcript

14830 INDIAN OFFICE 1894
Inclos. No. 1

No. ..............
[horizontal double lines]
Name: Thomas V. Keam
Rank: Resident Citizen
Station: Keam Cañon
Date: Apl 5 – 1894
Received: Apl 9 – 1894

CONTENTS:

Transmits petition
of Moqui Indians.

Enclo #4

1 st Endorsement
Navajo & Moqui Agency
Fort Defiance A.T.

Respectfully forward
to the Hon Commissioner
of Indian Affairs –
Washington
E.H. Plummer
1st Lt 10th Inf.
Actg Indian Agt

[page 2]

[printed stationery with drawing in upper right corner of Indian woman, head and upper
body, wearing traditional dress, jewelry, and hairstyle]

THOMAS V. KEAM
Tusayan Trading Post,
KEAM’S CAÑON, ARIZONA.
[wavy horizontal line]
Railway and Telegraph Station, Holbrook, Arizona.
14830

Keam’s Canon, Arizona, April 5 1894
1st Lieut E. H. Plummer U.S. Army,
Agent for Navajos
Fort Defiance A.T.

Dear Lieut:
I forward you enclosed a request
of the Moqui Indians, signed by all the Chiefs and head
men of the tribe, (one hundred and twenty three (123)) asking
the Government to give them a title to their land.

Attached are petitions in favour of same, signed by General
A. McD. McCook Commanding the Department, the Officers
of his Staff, General Carr, with Major Powell Director
of Geological Survey, and other prominent citizens
who have visited and are well acquainted with the
character of the Moqui Counrty.

Every family in the tribe is represented on this paper,
and each desired me to make an earnest appeal to you
in their behalf. That you do all in your power for
them, in this most important of all their interests.

Surrounded as they are by a desert with only a few

[page 3]

[printed stationery with drawing in upper right corner of Indian woman, head and upper
body, wearing traditional dress, jewelry, and hairstyle]

THOMAS V. KEAM
Tusayan Trading Post,
KEAM’S CAÑON, ARIZONA.
[wavy horizontal line]
Railway and Telegraph Station, Holbrook, Arizona.

Keam’s Canon, Arizona, .....................189.........

springs miles apart, from which they obtain a scant
supply of water for themselves and their stock, dependent
entirely on the limited rainfall for moisture to raise
their crops; this question is of vital importance to them,
and we hope it will receive favourable consideration
from the Government.

Very truly yours,
Thomas V. Keam.

[page 4]

14830 OFFICE OF 1894
Indian Affairs.
Rec’d APR 19

No. ..............
[horizontal double lines]
Name: E. H. PLUMMER
Rank: ACTING AGENT
Station: NAVAJO AGENCY, N.M.
Date: APR 10 1894
Received:

CONTENTS:

Transmits petition
from Moqui Indians
with other papers, asking
that they be allowed to hold
and cultivate their lands ac-
cording to their own customs.

2 Enlc. File

Allan L
29/145

[page 5]

UNITED STATES INDIAN SERVICE,
N A V A J O Agency,
Fort Defiance, A.T.
April 10, 1894.

14830

Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
Washington, D.C.

Sir: --
I have the honor to transmit herewith petition of the Moqui
Indians praying that they may be allowed to handle, hold and cil-
tivate their lands according to their customs and that a certain
portion of the reservation be assigned to them exclusively.

I urgently recommend that their request be granted. It is
supported by recommendations of prominent persons familiar with
the life and customs of these people as well as with the lands
which they till.

In a conversation which I had with Special Allotting Agent
John S. Mayhugh, who spent two years or more among these people,
making the surveys preliminary to allotting in severalty of
their lands, he stated to me that from his knowledge of them,
their customs and their land he was of the opinion that it was
a mistake to allot their lands to them in severalty; that such
action was premature with them.

I am sure from what I know of these people and of the allot-
ments that if the allotments are confirmed confusion and trouble
will ensue.

[page 6]

UNITED STATES INDIAN SERVICE,
.............................................Agency,

Some four or five years ago, or more recently, a Commission
was convened, or did convene, at Keam’s Canon, to adjust the mat-
ter of a circle limit, within which the Moquis should have ex-
clusive use of the reservation. There is no record in this office
of the recommendations of this Commission having been confirmed.

Very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
E. H. Plummer.
1st Lieut. 10th Infantry,
Acting U.S. Indian Agent.

[page 7]

[lines numbered 1-31]
Moqui Villages
Arizona March ^ 27 & 28 ^ 1894

To the Washington Chiefs:
have looked over our lands with spy-glasses
and made marks upon it, and we know but
little of what this means. As we believe that you
During the last two years strangers
have no wish to disturb our possessions, we want
to tell you something about this Hopi land.

None of us ever asked that it should be
measured into separate lots, and given to individuals
for this would cause confusion.

The family, the dwelling house and the field
are inseparable, because the woman is the heart
of these, and they rest with her. Among us the
family traces its kin from the mother, hence
all its possessions are hers. The man builds the
house but the woman is the owner, because she
repairs and preserves it; the man cultivates the
field, but he renders its harvests into the woman’s
keeping, because upon her it rests to prepare the
food, and the surplus of stores for barter depends
upon her thrift.

A man plants the fields of his wife, and
the fields assigned to the children she bears, and
informally he calls them his, although in fact they
are not. Even of the field which he inherits
from his mother, its harvests he may dispose of
at will, but the field itself he may not.
He may permit his son to occupy it and gather
Its produce, but at the father’s death the son may

-1-
[handwritten in brackets upside down at bottom of page] [14830-94]

[page 8]

-2-

[lines numbered 1-31]
not own it, for then it passes to the father’s sister’s
son, or nearest mother’s kin, and thus our fields
and houses always remain with our mother’s family.

According to the number of children
a woman has, fields for them are assigned to
her, from some of the lands of her family group,
and her husband takes care of them. Hence our
fields are numerous but small, and several belonging
to the same family may be close together, or they may
be miles apart, because arable localities are not
continuous. There are some other reasons for the irreg-
ularity in size and situation of our family
lands, as interrupted sequence of inheritance
caused by extinction of families, but chiefly
owing to the following condition, and to which
we especially invite your attention.

In the Spring and early Summer there
usually comes from the Southwest a succession of
gales, oftentimes strong enough to blow away the
sandy soil from the face of some of our fields, and
to expose the underlying clay which is hard, and
sour, and barren; as the sand is the only fertile
land, when it moves, the planters must follow it,
and other fields must be provided in place of those
which have been devastated. Sometimes generations
pass away and these barren spots remain, while
in other instances, after a few years, the winds
have again restored the desirable same upon them.
In such event its fertility is disclosed by the nature
of the grass and shrubs that grow upon it. If
these are promising, a number of us unite to

[page 9]

-3-

[lines numbered 1-31]
clear off the land and make it again fit for
planting, when it may be given back to its former
owner, or if a long time has elapsed, to other heirs,
or it may be given to some person of the same
family group, more in need of a planting place.

These limited changes in land holding are
effected by mutual discussion and concession
among the elders, and among all the thinking
men and women of the family groups interested.
In effect, the same system of holding, and the
same method of planting, obtain among the Tewa,
and all the Hopi villages, and under them we
provide ourselves with food in abundance.

The American is our elder brother, and in
everything he can teach us, except in the method
of growing corn in these waterless sandy valleys,
and in that we are sure we can teach him.
We believe that you have no desire to change our
system of small holdings, nor do we think
that you wish to remove any of our ancient
landmarks, and it seems to us that the
conditions we have mentioned afford sufficient
grounds for this requesting to be left undisturbed.

Further it has been told to us, as coming
from Washington, that neither measuring nor
individual papers are necessary for us to keep
possession of our villages, our peach orchards
and our springs. If this be so, we should like
to ask what need there is to bring confusion into
our accustomed system of holding corn fields.

We are aware that some ten years ago

[page 10]

-4-

[lines numbered 1-31]
a certain area around our lands, was proclaimed
to be for our use, but the extent of this area is
unknown to us, nor has any Agent, ever been able
to point it out, for its boundaries have never
been measured. We most earnestly desire to have
one continuous boundary ring enclosing all the
Tewa and all the Hopi lands, and that it shall
be large enough to afford sustenance for our
increasing flocks and herds. If such a scope can
be confirmed to us by a paper from your hands,
securing us forever against intrusion, all our
people will be satisfied:

[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

1 Ha’-yi of A’-la [antelope] [rain clouds and lightning] Kwa’-la- Kwai
(Walpi) of
2 (Walpi) O-ku’-wa to’-wa
Ho’-ñi of Tcűa [snake] (Te’-wa)
3 Wű-na’-ta of Pa’-kab 15
(Walpi) [reed] [katcina] Ka’-nű
4 of
Na-syű’ñ- we-ve (Ma’saű űh) [chief] Pa’-kab- nyû-mû
14
of Ko-kop (Walpi) (Walpi)
5
A-na- wi’-ta [rain clouds and lightning]
of
Pát-ki (Sitcomovi) 16
6 Intiwa [katcina] [?] [?]
of Ka-tci’- na 17
(Walpi) [earth’s horizon] Lo-ma’- nak-cű
7 of Tű-wa (Mű-coñ-inovi)
Tű-was’- mi of Pa’-kab
(Walpi) [reed] 18
8 [rat] Pa-lűñ- au-űh
Ha’-ni [tobacco flower] of
of Ka’-la (Cipau’lovi)
Pi’-ba
(Walpi)
9 19
Syűñ-o’- i-ti- wa [katcina] [katcina] Si-kya’- hoñ-ava
of of Katcina
Tca’-kwai- na (Mű-coñ- in-ovi)
(Walpi) 20
10 [parakeet] Kwa’-vi- o-ma
Su’pela [water house] of Gya’-zro
of Pat’-ki (Mű-coñ- in-ovi)
(Walpi) 21
11 [squash]
Kwa’-tca- kwa [rain clouds and lightning] Ta-las’- yau-ma
of of
Pat’-ki Pa’-tûña
(Walpi) (Mű-coñ- in-ovi)
12 22
Tű’-ni- ma [badger] [eagle] [?]
(Sitcomovi) of Ho-na’- ni of
13 Po-la’- ka-ka [maize ear] Kwa’-hű
of Ku-lon- to-wa (Mű-coñ- in-ovi

[page 11]

-5-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

23
[?] [Ma’-sau- űh] Ku-wan’- yűc-va of Ko-kop (Mű-coñ’- in-ovi)
24
(Tewa)
Naquaventiwa [cloud] Na-kwa’- ven-ti- wa of Pat-ki (Műcoñ’inovi)
25
Nuvauanay [badger] Nű-va’- yau-ma of Hon’ani (Mű coñ’inovi)
Kami [parakeet] Ka’-mi of Gya’-zro (Mű-coñ’- in-ovi
26
Shekauleti [bear] Sű-kya’- le-tci- ti-wa of Ho’nauűh (Cipau’lovi)
27
Ushiwa [sun] Kű-wan’- yű’-i- ci-mû of Ta’-wa (Cipaulovi)
28
Shekahpiki [sun] Si-kya’- pi-ki of Ta’-wa (Cipaulovi)
29
Tawahonima [bear] Ta’-wa- hoñi-ma of Hon’auűh (Cipau’lovi)
30
Lamahova [bear] Lo-ma’- hoñ-ava of Hon’auűh (Cipaulovi)
31
Quiwanquaptwa [bluebird] Kű-wan’- kwap-ti- wa of Tca’-ro (Cipaulovi)
32
Shininuwa [katcina] Ta-tcuk’- ti Ci-nai’- ni-wa of Katcina (Cuño’pavai)
33
Hon’ani [rope] of Pi-yű- kűc’ (Hon’-au- űh) (Cuñopavi)
34
Lumaventiwa [bear] Lo-ma’- ven-ti- wa of Hon’-au- űh (Cipaulovi)
35
36
Lololoma [bear] Lo’-lo- lo-ma of Hon’-au- űh (Oraibi)
Conyuniniwa [badger] Ko-yoñ’- ai-ni- wa of Ho-na’- ni (Oraibi)
37
Nuhushi [maize] Nai’-yu- ci-ni-ma of Ka-ű (oraibi)
38
39
Gutagua [badger] Kwa’-tca- kwa of Ho-na’- ni (Oraibi)

[page 12]

-6-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

40 [crane] Sa’-kwai- ma of A-to’- ko (Oraibi)
Shakwama
41 [cloud] Tcos-hoñ’- ni’wa of Pat’ki (Sitco’movi)
Chinon
42 [badger] Ma-cai- yam’-ti-wa of Ho-na’- ni (do)
Mayanitiwa
43 [katcina] Ña’-hű of Tca’-kwai- na (do)
Nayu
[?] [sheep footprints]
44 Sikya’-ven- ti-wa on Pañ’-wa (Ala) (Walpi)
45
Coochventiwa [spruce] Kűtc’-ven- ti-wa of Salab’ (Katcina) (Műcoñ’inovi)
46
Coochcoyono [coyote] Kű-tca’- ko-yo’- ño of I’-sau- űh (ko’-kop) (Műcoñ’inovi)
47
Sa-mi’- wi-ki [cactus] Sa-mi’- wi’ki of Ű’-cű (Tcűa) (Walpi)
48 [snake] Ko’-pű- lű of Tcűa (Walpi)
49 [cloud] Kwa’-a of Pat’-ki (Walpi)
50 [reed] Pau’-wa- ti’-wa
51 [katcina] Sű’-yű- kű
52 [lizard] Ka’-kap’ti of Kű’-kűtc (tű’-wa) Walpi
of Pa’-kab (Walpi)
of Tca’-kwai- na (Walpi)

[page 13]

-7-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

53 [water house over maize] Sa-kwis’- ti-wa of Pat-ki (Walpi)
54 [badger] Yo’-yo- wai-ya of Ho-na’- ni (Sitcomovi)
55 [tobacco] A’-no- ti of Sa-towa (Tewa)
56 [sun] Ka’-la- cai of Tûñ-to- wa (Tewa)
57 [bear] Mo’-tco of Ke-to- wa (Tewa)
58 [snake] Ű’-ű- ya-wa of Hű’-wi (Tcűa group) (Sitcomovi)
[dove]

[page 14]

-8-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

59 [weapon] Nű-va’- ti of Kwi’-ñű- bi (Tca’-kwai- na group) Sitcomovi
60 [bracket] [lizard]
[horizon] Si-kya’- ho’-nau- wû-űh of Kű-kűtc (Tű’-wa group)
[earth mother]
61 [bear] Na-si’- hep-tű- wa of Ho’nau űh (Cûño’pavi)
62 [forehead of sun] Hű-mi’- ñű-i- ti-wa of Ka’-la (Cûño’pavi)
63 [sun] Hon’-co- ha of Ta’-wa (Cipau’lovi)
64 [cloud] Sak-ñű- i-va of Nű’-va (Pat-ki group)

[page 15]

-9-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

65 [bear] Lo-mai’- yam-ti- wa of Ho’-nau- űh (Cûño’pavi)
66 [rope] Hű-mi’-mű- in-i- wa of Ho’-nau- űh (Cipaulovi)
67 [cloud] Lo-mai’- yűc-va of O’-mau- űh (Pat’ki group)
68 [tadpole] Kű-wan’- ma-ca of Pa-va’- ti-ya (Pat’ki group)
69 [cloud] Lo-ma’- ke-le of ^O’mau’űh (Pat’ki group)
70 [bear] Lo-ma’- le-tci- ti-wa of Ho’-nau- űh (Cûño’pavi)
71 [sun] Tű-ve- waih’-ti- wa of Ta’-wa (Cûño’pavi)
72 [maize] Kű-wan’- ho-i- ya-ma of Kaű (Pat-ki group)
73 [water house] Lo-ma’- ho-i- nű-wa of Pat’-ki
(Cûño’pavi)
(Cûño’pavi)
(Cûño’pavi)
(Cûño’pavi)

[page 16]

-10-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

74 [deer] Ha’-ha- wi of So-wi- iñ-wû (Ala) Walpi
From 75 to 123 all are of Oraibi.
75 [badger] Si’-ma of Ho-na’ni
76 [lizard] Wik’-vai- ya of Pa-tcib’- kwa-ca; Tű’-wa group.
77 [badger] Poñ-ya’- mű-in- i-wa of Ho-na’- ni
78 [lizard] Na-wi’- ni of Ma’-tca- kwa; Tű’-wa group
79 [bow] Lo-ma’- nim-ti- wa of Au’-i- ta of Pa’-kab group.
80 [bow] Nű-ci’- ti-ma of Au’-i- ta; Pa’-kab group.

[page 17]

-11-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

81 [sun] Kű-ya- yep’-ti- wa of Ta’-wa; Pa’-kab group.
82 [sun] Ta-las- kwap’-ti- wa of Ta’-wa
83 [rattlesnake] Kűk’-ti- wa of Tcűa
84 [bear] Cak-hoñ’- yo-ma of Ho’nauwûűh.
85 [rattlesnake] Na-mu’- ra of Tcűa
86 [reed] Lo-man’- kwa of Te’-be; Pa’-kab group.
87 [rabbit] Tañ-ak’- wai-ma of Ta’-bo.
88 [reed] Si’kya’-hoñ-yo- ma of Pa-ka- bi
89 [katcina] Si-kya’- mű-in- i-wa of Katcina (Ta-tcuk’- tű)
90 [coyote] Lo-ma’- ta-wa of i’-sau- űh; Ko-kop group
91 [earth] Ma-ca’- to-i- ni-wa of Tű’-wa
92 [hare footprint] Kű-wan’- wai’-ti- wa of So’-wi; Ta’-bo group
Totem is So-wi’- kű-kű.

[page 18]

-12-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

93 [tobacco] Na-kwa’- yec-ti- wa of Pi’-ba
94 [Ma’-sau- űh] Tañ-ak- nim-ti- wa of Ma’-sau- űh; Ko’-kop group.
95 [bear] Tű-wa’- ho-yo- ma of Ho’-nau- wû-űh
96 [Ma’-sau- űh] Kű-wan’- wai-yo- ma of Ma’-sau- űh; Ko’-kop group.
97 [bear] Lah’-pű of Ho’-nau- wû-űh
98 [squash blossom] Ta-las- nűm’-ti- wa of Pa’tûñ-a: Totem is patûñ-ci
99 [butterfly] Kű-wan- wai’-ni- wa of Bo’-li; Ho-na’- ni group.
100 [tobacco flower] Ta-las- yam’-ti- wa of Pi’-ba
101 [eagle] Ta-las’- ve-ma of Kwa’-hű; Pa’-kab group.
102 [reed] Kwű-ma’yeo’- ti-wa of Pa’-ka-bi
103 [reed] Na-ci’- to-i- ni-wa of Pa’ka-bi
104 [katcina] Si-ma’- i-ti- wa of Katcina
(Totem is A’-ho- li)

[page 19]

-13-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

105 [snake] Tű’ve-yam’- ti-wa of Tcűa
106 [rope] Ta-wa- kwap’-ti- wa of Pi’-yű- kűc; Ho’nauwûűh group.
107 [rabbit] Ma-ca’- ve-ma of Ta’-bo
108 [lizard] Hű-mi- hoi’-ni- wa of Kű’-kűtc; Tű’-wa group.
109 [snake] Lo-mai’- yes-va of Tcűa
110 [coyote] Tű-ve- yec’-ti- wa of I’-sau- űh; Ko’-kop group.
111 [sun] Kel-hoñ’- ni-wa of Ta’-wa; Pa’-kab group.
112 [katcina] Ma-ca- hoñ’-ava of Katcina
(Totem is Ta’cab)

[page 20]

-14-

[lines numbered 1-31]
[encircled numbers, handwritten names and handdrawn totems of petitioners]

113 [crane] Tű-wa- hoi’-ni- wa of A-to’- ko
114 [cloud] Lo-ma- hoi’-ni- wa of O’-mau- űh; Pat’-ki group.
115 [lizard] Nű-va’- ve-ma of Kű’-kűtc; Tű-wa group.
116 [pigeon-hawk] Ta-las- ven’-ti- wa of Ke’-le
117 [cloud] Kű-wan’- yu-wa of O’-mau- űh
118 [reed] Ci-kai- yec’-ti- wa of Te’-be
119 [badger] Kwű-ma- hoi’-ni- wa of Ho-na’- ni.
120 [reed] Bo-li- yec’-ti- wa of Te’-be
121 [lizard] So-wi’- wa of Kű’-kűtc (Ma’-tca- kwa) Tű-wa group.
122 [badger] Cak’-wű- nű of Ho-na’- ni
123 [earth’s horizon] Lo-ma- ac’-ni- wa of Tű-wa.

[page 21]

14½

[lines numbered 1-31]

Sitcomovi, March 27th , 1894.
I certify that I understand the foregoing petition
and that I have told its meaning to the people of the East
mesa and of the Middle mesa.
Susie Pitei

I certify that I understand the foregoing petition
and that I have told its meaning to the people of the
Middle mesa and of Oraibi.-- -- -
Bitcomovi

March 28th , 1894 [bracket] [badger] Ma-cai- yam’-ti- wa
[signed] AM Stephen, Witness

[signed] AM Stephen
[signed] Thomas V. Keam
[signed] H.R. Voth

[page 22]

-15-

[lines numbered 1-31]

Memorandum; Explaining the foregoing Totem signatures.
All of the signers are principals in the primitive Religious
Societies, are eldest brothers (Chiefs) of gentes, Chiefs of
Villages, or otherwise commonly recognized as typical
Representatives of the Hopi and Tewa peoples.

No. 1. Antelope. The signer is of the Antelope gens of the Horn group of gentes:
he signs for his nephew, the Village Chief of Walpi, a young man,
not yet considered to have sufficient experience to take active part
in public affairs of importance.
2. Snake. The signer is of this group of gentes, and is Announcement Chief,
or Orator, of Walpi.
3. Reed. The signer is of this group of gentes, and is one of two Chiefs of the
“Horn”, one of the four principal religious societies.
4. Ma’-sau- wû-űh; A chief conception, believed to preside over metamorphic
and other mundane transformations, and especially over Fire and
Death. The gens of the signer is named after this deity, and
belongs to the group of gentes called “Ko’-kop” = All fuels. The
signer wishing to make his totem clearer drew the larger figure of
Ma’sauwûűh.
5. Rain Clouds and Lightning perched over a growing plant of maize; it is the
totem of a large number of gentes united under the common
term of Pat’-ki – Water-house, or Moisture people. The signer
is Chief of the “Agave people”, one of the four principal religious
societies.
6. Ka-tci’- na. A conception of numerous superhuman beings who are inter-
mediaries between the people and their deities. There are a
number of gentes named after these mythic beings and their
belongings, and the totem here displayed is the mask of the
He-he’- ya Katcina, an occult personage deemed of great virtues.
The signer is Chief of the most important Katcina rites.
7. Reed; same as No 3. The signer is the other Chief of the “Horn” society.
8. The flower of an indigenous species of tobacco, called pi’-ba, the name of
the signer’s gens; he is Chief of the “Dawn Singers” one of the
four principal religious societies.—

[page 23]

-16-

[lines numbered 1-31]

9. Tca’-kwai- na, a Warrior Katcina after which was named a group of Tewa
gentes, now incorporate with the Hopi; the totem represents the mask
worn by the personators of this Katcina at certain ceremonies. The
signer is Chief of the “Thinkers” one of the four principal religious
societies.
10. Water-house, same as No 5.
11. Rain clouds & lightning; the signer is of the Cloud gens of Water-house group.
12. Badger. The signer is of the Badger gens, the totem is badger feet.
13. An ear of maize; the signer is of the Maize gens of the Tewa people.
14. Rain clouds & lightning; the signer is of Cloud gens of the Tewa people.
15. Represents a stone figurine of the war deity, which fetich is in the keeping
of the Reed group of gentes to which the signer belongs.
16. Indistinct. The man who tried to draw his totem here belonged to the same
group of gentes as at No 4; although he was mortally ill he was anxious to
set his mark to the petition, and he died upon the following day.
17. The signer belongs to the Earth, or Land, group of gentes, and the totem
he uses is the circle, the horizon, encompassing the Hopi region.
18. This is of rather curious interest as showing the signer’s erroneous conception
of the meaning of the name of his own gens, which is Ka’-la, of the
Reed group of gentes. Ka’-la means rat, and it also means
forehead; the signer has taken the former meaning and has tried to
depict a rat; but actually there is no “rat” gens, there is, however,
a forehead (of the sun) gens, the proper totem of which appears at No 62.
19. Ka-tci’- na; the totem crudely represents the mask of a personage called
“Broad-face”, one of the conceptions of the terrible.
20. Parroquet; the signer has tried to depict this bird, which is the name
of his gens, and belongs to the Katcina group of gentes.
21. Squash; the totem represents the vegetable. This gens long extinct on the East
mesa.
22. Eagle; a crude convention; a gens pertaining to the Reed group.
23 An abortive attempt to depict a totem similar to No 4.
24 Cloud. See No 11.
25 Badger. “ No 12.
26 Parroquet “ 20.

[page 24]

-17-

[lines numbered 1-31]

27. Bear. The signer belongs to this group of gentes and as a totem depicts a bear’s
foot.
28 Sun. This totem is the conventional figure of the Sun, a gens in the Reed group.
29 Sun. See No. 28.
30. Bear. “ “ 27.
31 Bear “ “ 27.
32. The signer belongs to the Blue-bird gens of the Bear group; he attempts to
depict this bird.
33. The signer is of the Katcina group of gentes, and for a totem has depicted the
cowl mask, studded with seed stuffed knobs, peculiar to the Ta-tcuk’- tű,
a phrase description of this Knob mask. These Ta-tcul’- tű are an
improvised group of men who don these masks, stain their bodies with
ochre, and accompanied by a drummer, sing as a chorus, before which
the Katcina personalities dance at certain exhibitions.
34. This totem is the pi’-yű- kű-ca, carrying rope made of bear’s skin, with a
ring fastened to its end. A gens of the Bear group took its name from
the mythic circumstances attending the making of the first of these ropes.
35 Bear. See No 27.
36 Bear. “ “ The signer is the Village Chief of Oraibi.
37 Badger. “ 12.
38 Maize. The signer belongs to the Maize [struckthrough] gens, of the Water-house
group, and depicts an entire growing plant of maize.
39 Badger. See No 12.
40 Crane. The signer belongs to Crane gens and tried to depict a flying
Crane.
41. Cloud. See No 11.
42 Badger. See No 12.
43 Tca’-kwai- na. This totem is the mask of the “Warrior Grandmother”
of this group of gentes; the mask is worn by personators of this
Katcina at certain annual ceremonies.
44. Mountain sheep footprints; the signer belongs to the Mountain
sheep gens of the Horn group.
45. Spruce tree; The boughs and foliage of the Spruce are devoted to many
sacred purposes in connection with ceremonies and Katcina
exhibitions. The signer is of the Spruce gens of the Katcina group.

[page 25]

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[lines numbered 1-31]

46. Coyote. The signer is an old man, quite stone blind, and one of his
friends helped him by guiding his hand as he drew the Coyote head;
he is of the Coyote gens, of the Ko’-kop group of gentes.
47. Columnar Cactus; the signer belongs to a gens of that name, of the
Snake group of gentes.
48. Snake. This convention is common to the entire group of Snake
gentes. Nos. 47 and 48 are the two Chiefs of the Walpi Snake Ceremonies.
49. Cloud. See No 11.
50. Reed. See No 15. This reed (phragmites communis) is held sacred
because its prototype was the mythic plant up which all mankind
climbed from the Underworld. The signer, by inheritance, is
the Keeper of the War fetiches.
51. Tca’-kwai- na. See No 9.
52 Lizard. The signer is of the Lizard gens, of the Earth group of gentes.
53. Water-house. See No 5.
54. Badger. The signer depicts the totem for the first mythic badger who came
from the Underworld, carrying a bundle on its back which
contained all medicinal charms, and in its left hand, the excorcising
wing feather of the Buzzard.
55. Tobacco. This totem was drawn by the Tewa Chief of this gens,
and depicts the same plant as that of which the Walpi Chief
drew the flower; see No 8.
56. Sun; the signer is the Tewa Sun-priest, and the sole survivor of the
Tewa Sun gens.—
57. Bear. The signer is the Chief of the Tewa Bear gens.
58. The signer depicts the Dove, which is his gens, and the Snake,
the group of gentes to which it belongs.
59. The pűtc’-ko- hű (thin-wood) here depicted is a boomerang shaped
weapon, always made of Oak, the gens of the signer; the Oak
is if the Tca’-kwai- na group of gentes.

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60. The signer of this rather elaborate totem belongs to the Lizard gens, of the
Earth group; he depicts the specific lizard after which his gens is
named; the oval marks represents the horizon, the ideal boundary
of the Hopi earth, and the uncouth figure is a recognized con-
vention of the Earth-Mother, and is the female complement
of the deity Ma’-sau- wû-űh, referred to in No 4.
61. Bear. The signer is of that gens and depicts a conventional bear’s foot;
he is Village Chief of Cûño’pavi.
62. Ka’-la, = Forehead (of the Sun); the earliest sunlight, from the yet
only half risen sun, is regarded as of special beneficence, The
signer is of this Forehead gens, and is of the group including Sun and Reed.
63 Sun. See No 28.
64 The signer is of the Snow gens of the Water-house group, and depicts the
typical Cloud totem of these gentes.
65. Bear. See No 27.
66. This totem is of a gens called Ña’-ta, of the Bear group, and represents
the widened part of the bear’s skin rope, against which the forehead
is pressed, when the rope supports a burden upon the back.
67. Cloud. See No 11.
68. Tadpole. The signer is of Tadpole gens of the Water-house group.
69 Cloud. See No 11.
70 Bear. “ 27
71 Sun “ 28
72 Maize “ 38
73 Water-house “ 5
74 Deer. The signer is of Deer gens of the Horn group.
75 Badger; See No 12.
76 Lizard; The signer depicts the specific lizard after which his gens is named.
77 Badger. See No 12
78 Lizard. The signer depicts a conventional figure of the Horn-toad after
which his gens is named.
From No 75 all the signers are of Oraibi.

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79 Bow; The signer is of Bow gens, of the Reed group.
80 Bow; See No 79.
81 Sun; [bracket joining 81 and 82] See No 28
82 Sun;
83 Rattlesnake, a gens of the Snake group.
84 Bear; See No 27
85 Rattlesnake, See No 83.
86 Greasewood (sarcobatus verm.0 a gens of the Reed group.
87 Cottontail rabbit; a group of gentes, called the Rabbit, is composed of
this Cottontail gens, and another called after the jackass rabbit, or hare.
88 Reed; See No 50.
89 Katcina; See No 33.
90 Coyote, of the “All fuels” group of gentes.
91 Earth, See Nos. 17 and 60.
92 The signer is of Jackass rabbit gens and the totem represents
the footprints of this large rabbit, or hare.
93 Tobacco. See Nos. 8 and 55.
94 Ma’-sau- wû-űh; The signer is of this gens, of the “All fuels” group,
and for totem depicts the mask worn by the personator
of this deity at one of the winter ceremonies.
95 Bear; See No 27
96 Ma’-sau- wû-űh; See No 94.
97 Bear; See No 27.
98 Squash blossom; this is a very common convention; the signer is of Squash
gens.
99. Butterfly; the signer is of Butterfly gens, of the Badger group.
100 Tobacco; See Nos. 8, 55 & 93.
101. Eagle; the signer is of Eagle gens, of Reed group, & depicts an Eagle’s foot.
102 Reed; See No 50
103 Reed; See No 50
104 Katcina; The signer depicts the mask of the personators of A’-ho- li Katcina.
105. Snake; The signer is of Rattlesnake gens, of the Snake group.

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106 Bear skin rope; See No 34.
107 Cottontail rabbit; See No 87.
108 Lizard; See No 52.
109 Snake; See No 105.
110 Coyote; See No 90
111 Sun; “ “ 28
112 Katcina; The signer depicts the mask of the personators of Ta-cab’ Katcina.
113 Crane; See No 40.
114 Cloud; “ “ 11
115 Lizard “ “ 52
116 Pigeon-hawk; The signer has tried to depict this small hawk and its
footprint.
117. Cloud; See No 11
118 Greasewood; “ “ 86
119 Badger; “ “ 12
120 Greasewood; “ “ 86
121 Lizard; “ “ 78
122 Badger; “ “ 12
123 Earth; “ “ 17 and 60.

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[lines numbered 1-31]

We the undersigned are informed that
the Moqui Indians of Arizona are asking
the Government to grant them a title in
common, to the area of land they occupy, and
we would gladly endorse their petition for such
purpose.

The forbidding physical features of
this region, a desert scope of shifting sand dunes
and waterless valleys, led these people to evolve
peculiar but effective methods of field culture, and
for ages they have kept themselves in plenty.

We understand that they have many
ancient land owning customs, under which they
still hold their dwellings and planting grounds:
the system seems well adapted to their circumstances,
and as they are anxious to preserve it, we see no
reason why they should be interfered with.

As all of the other village Indians of New
Mexico have their lands confirmed to them, we
think that in justice, these Moquis should also
have the scope they occupy similarly confirmed,
as they have been in possession since the
Spanish conquest.

We have visited these interesting people,
and noted their surroundings, and can testify as
to their habits of laborious industry, and their
perseverance against formidable natural obstacles.

We therefore hope their petition for title will
receive favourable consideration from the
Government, so that these remote people
may continue to maintain themselves, happily

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[lines numbered 1-31]

and in prosperous independence.

[signed] A. McD. McCook
Brig Genl U S Army
Commanding Dept. of the Colorado
Chauncey B. Baker
1st Lieut. 7th Infty Aide de Camp
John E. McMahon
I Lieut. 2 Arty, Aide de Camp.
A C Sharpe Captain USA
Thomas Ward
Lt Col. & Asst. Adjt. Genl.
Charles L. Collins
1st Lieut 11th Infantry
[illegible]

Gen. McCook & others
Recommends
granting of request
of Moquis—

Encl 2.

[page 31]

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[lines numbered 1-31]

We the undersigned are informed that
the Moqui Indians of Arizona, are asking the
Government to grant them a title in common
to the area of land they occupy, and we would
gladly endorse their petition for such purpose.

The forbidding physical features of this
region, a desert scope of shifting sand dunes and
waterless valleys, led these people to evolve peculiar
but effective methods of field culture, and for
ages they have kept themselves in plenty.

We understand that they have many ancient
land owning customs under which they still
hold their dwellings and planting grounds: the
system seems well adapted to their circumstances,
and as they are anxious to preserve it, we see no
reason why they should be interfered with.

As all of the other village Indians of New
Mexico have their lands confirmed to them, we
think that in justice, these Moquis should also
have the scope they occupy similarly confirmed,
as they have been in possession since the Spanish
conquest.

We have visited these interesting
people, and noted their surroundings, and can
testify to their habits of laborious industry, and
their perseverance against formidable natural
obstacles.

We therefore hope their petition for title
will receive favorable consideration from the
Government, so that these remote people may
continue to maintain themselves, happily and

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[lines numbered 1-31]

in prosperous independence.

James Mooney
Frank Hamilton Cushing
James Dorsey
Gilbert Thompson
A H Thompson
Arthur P. Davis
E.M. Douglas
H M Wilson
J.K. Hillers
H.C. Rizer
William Hallett Phillips
[illegible]
Eugene A. Carr Bvt. Maj. Gen’l.

14830 INDIAN OFFICE 1894
Inclos. No. 2

James Mooney & others

Recommends
approval of Moqui
petition
Encl. #3
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
National Archives Identifier: 300340
Full Citation: A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.; 3/27/1894 - 4/10/1894; Letters Received, 1881 - 1907; Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/hopi-petition, June 25, 2019]


A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 1



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 3



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 4



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 5



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 6



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 7



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 8



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 9



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 10



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 11



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 12



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 13



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 14



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 15



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 16



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 17



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 18



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 19



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 20



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 21



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 22



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 23



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 24



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 25



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 26



A Hopi (Moqui) Petition Signed by All the Chiefs and Headmen of the Tribe Asking the Federal Government to Give Them Title to Their Lands Instead of Individually Allotting Each Tribal Member.

Page 27



Document

Column of cavalry, artillery, and wagons, commanded by Gen. George A. Custer, crossing the plains of Dakota Territory. By W. H. Illingworth, 1874 Black Hills expedition

1874

This photograph taken by W. H. Illingworth during the 1874 Black Hills expedition, commanded by Lt. Col. George A. Custer, shows a column of cavalry, artillery, and wagons crossing the plains of Dakota Territory.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers.
National Archives Identifier: 519427
Full Citation: Photograph 77-HQ-264-854; Column of cavalry, artillery, and wagons, commanded by Gen. George A. Custer, crossing the plains of Dakota Territory. By W. H. Illingworth, 1874 Black Hills expedition; 1874; Photographs From the Headquarters, Civil Works Map File, River and Harbor Improvements, 1863 - 1927; Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/custers-black-hills-expedition, June 25, 2019]


Column of cavalry, artillery, and wagons, commanded by Gen. George A. Custer, crossing the plains of Dakota Territory. By W. H. Illingworth, 1874 Black Hills expedition

Page 2



Document

Description of Stock Stolen by Indians from David Cottner, Manuel Ramaro, and Louis Bremer

5/23/1879

Transcript

[Handwritten]

Description of Stock Stolen by Indians at Point of Rocks 15 miles East of Snake Creek on
Sidney Road from Pine Ridge Agency

May 23 rd 1879

Owned by David Cottner. 1 Sorrel mare mule, Branded “D.C.” on left shoulder (not [plain?])
“15” on left hip

1 Bay horse mule, Brand “D.C.” on left shoulder, “R” on right shoulder.

1 Dun horse, Brand “D.C.” on left shoulder also [symbol, not reproducible] on same
place

1 Bare Mare, Brand same as dun horse.

1 Large sorrel horse. No Brands.

1 do Black do, No Brands. White spot on Forehead and withers.

Owned by Manuel Ramaro, 1 Black mare mule (small)

1 Sorrel Pony No Brand

1 Dun Texas Pony, Blazed faced, Texas Brand

1 [Lt?] Bay Pony, split ears, No Brand

Owned by Louis Bremer 1 Dark Clay Bank Pony mare,

1 Black Bold face Texas Horse Pony

1 Lt Bay horse pony

1 Bay American horse, left hip [shod?], US on left shoulder
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
National Archives Identifier: 284981
Full Citation: Description of Stock Stolen by Indians from David Cottner, Manuel Ramaro, and Louis Bremer; 5/23/1879; Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, . [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/description-of-stock-stolen-by-indians-from-david-cottner-manuel-ramaro-and-louis-bremer, June 25, 2019]


Description of Stock Stolen by Indians from David Cottner, Manuel Ramaro, and Louis Bremer

Page 2



Document

Fort Laramie Treaty

4/29/1868

In 1868, the Federal Government established the Indian Peace Commission. Under the Commission, General William T. Sherman and his staff negotiated a peace treaty with the Sioux (Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcs, and Santee) and the Arapaho. At least one representative of each individual tribe signed the treaty at Fort Laramie, Wyoming.

All the tribes involved gave up many thousands of acres of land that had been promised in earlier treaties, but retained hunting and fishing rights in their older territory. They also agreed not to attack railroads or settlers. In exchange, the U.S. Government established a smaller reservation than before, consisting of a large portion of the western half of what is now the state of South Dakota, including the Black Hills.

After the Revolutionary War, the United States had continued the European practice of negotiating treaties with the Native Peoples similarly to how they negotiated with foreign governments. This practice changed gradually over time.

In 1831, the Supreme Court case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia changed the status of Native tribes from "independent, sovereign nations" to "domestic dependent nations." Treaties, however, still followed the pattern of requiring negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal governments and ratification by Congress. Not all negotiated treaties were ratified.

In 1871, Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act, which suspended all further treaties with Native governments. After that time, all changes or additions to Native lands or status were conducted by Executive Order, Acts of Congress, and decisions of the Federal Courts. To this day federally recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives retain the right of self-government and usually hold a legal position directly under the Federal Government.

Transcript

ARTICLES OF A TREATY MADE AND CONCLUDED BY AND BETWEEN
Lieutenant General William T. Sherman, General William S. Harney, General Alfred H. Terry, General O. O. Augur, J. B. Henderson, Nathaniel G. Taylor, John G. Sanborn, and Samuel F. Tappan, duly appointed commissioners on the part of the United States, and the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, by their chiefs and headmen, whose names are hereto subscribed, they being duly authorized to act in the premises.

ARTICLE I.
From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall for ever cease. The government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.
If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained.

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of nay one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they



will, upon proof made to their agent, and notice by him, deliver up the wrongdoer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws, and, in case they willfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be reimbursed for his loss from the annuities, or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the United States; and the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his judgment may be proper, but no one sustaining loss while violating the provisions of this treaty, or the laws of the United States, shall be reimbursed therefor.

ARTICLE II.
The United States agrees that the following district of country, to wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of the Missouri river where the 46th parallel of north latitude crosses the same, thence along low-water mark down said east bank to a point opposite where the northern line of the State of Nebraska strikes the river, thence west across said river, and along the northern line of Nebraska to the 104th degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence north on said meridian to a point where the 46th parallel of north latitude intercepts the same, thence due east along said parallel to the place of beginning; and in addition thereto, all existing reservations of the east back of said river, shall be and the same is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians herein named,



and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit amongst them; and the United States now solemnly agrees that no persons, except those herein designated and authorized so to do, and except such officers, agents, and employees of the government as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory described in this article, or in such territory as may be added to this reservation for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all claims or right in and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as hereinafter provided.

ARTICLE III.
If it should appear from actual survey or other satisfactory examination of said tract of land, that it contains less than 160 acres of tillable land, for each person, who at the time may be authorized to reside on it, under the provisions of this treaty, and a very considerable number of such persons shall be disposed to comence cultivating the soil as farmers, the United States agrees to set apart, for the use of said Indians, as herein provided, such additional quantity of arable land, adjoining to said reservation, or as



near to the same as it can be obtained, as may be required to provide the necessary amount.

ARTICLE IV.
The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct, at some place on the Missouri river, near the centre of said reservation where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings, to wit, a warehouse, a store-room for the use of the agent in storing goods belonging to the Indians, to cost not less than $2,500; an agency building, for the residence of the agent, to cost not exceeding $3,000; a residence for the physician, to cost not more than $3,000; and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer-each to cost not exceeding $2,000; also, a school-house, or mission building, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be induced by the agent to attend school, which shall not cost exceeding $5,000.

The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said reservation, near the other buildings herein authorized, a good steam circular saw-mill, with a grist-mill and shingle machine attached to the same, to cost not exceeding $8,000.

ARTICLE V.
The United States agrees



that the agent for said Indians shall in the future make his home at the agency building; that he shall reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of complaint by and against the Indians as may be presented for investigation under the provisions of their treaty stipulations, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his findings, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision, subject to the revision of the Secretary of the Interior, shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.

ARTICLE VI.
If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the "Land Book" as herein directed, shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may



continue to cultivate it.
Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a family, may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him or her, for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land, not exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive possession of the same as above directed.

For each tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it, by the agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection, which said book shall be known as the "Sioux Land Book."

The President may, at any time, order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of said settlers in their improvements, and may fix the character of the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property between the Indians and their descendants as may be thought proper. And it is further stipulated that any



male Indians over eighteen years of age, of any band or tribe that is or shall hereafter become a party to this treaty, who now is or who shall hereafter become a resident or occupant of any reservation or territory not included in the tract of country designated and described in this treaty for the permanent home of the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the United States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, and who shall have made improvements thereon of the value of two hundred dollars or more, and continuously occupied the same as a homestead for the term of three years, shall be entitled to receive from the United States a patent for one hundred and sixty acres of land including his said improvements, the same to be in the form of the legal subdivisions of the surveys of the public lands. Upon application in writing, sustained by the proof of two disinterested witnesses, made to the register of the local land office when the land sought to be entered is within a land district, and when the tract sought to be entered is not in any land district, then 



upon said application and proof being made to the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and the right of such Indian or Indians to enter such tract or tracts of land shall accrue and be perfect from the date of his first improvements thereon, and shall continue as long as be continues his residence and improvements and no longer. And any Indian or Indians receiving a patent for land under the foregoing provisions shall thereby and from thenceforth become and be a citizen of the United States and be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of such citizens, and shall, at the same time, retain all his rights to benefits accruing to Indians under this treaty.

ARTICLE VII.
In order to insure the



civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially of such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural reservations, and they, therefore, pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school, and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States agrees that for every thirty children between said ages, who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be provided, and a teacher competent to teach the elementary branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will reside among said Indians and faithfully discharge his or her duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article to continue for not less than twenty years.

ARTICLE VIII.
When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and agricultural implements for the first year, not exceeding in value one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue to farm,



for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value twenty-five dollars. And it is further stipulated that such persons as commence farming shall receive instruction from the farmer herein provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be provided, with such iron, steel, and other material as may be needed.

ARTICLE IX.
At any time after ten years fro the making of this treaty, the United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided for, but in case of such withdrawal, an additional sum thereafter of ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education of said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and regulations for the expenditure of said sums as will best promote the education and moral improvement of said tribes.

ARTICLE X.
In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid



to the Indians herein named under any treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house on the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:

For each male person over 14 years of age, a suit of good substantial woollen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks.
For each female over 12 years of age, a flannel shirt, or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woollen hose, 12 yards of calico, and 12 yards of cotton domestics.
For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of woollen hose for each.

And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.
And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of $10 for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a



period of 30 years, while such persons roam and hunt, and $20 for each person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper. And if within the 30 years, at any time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing, under this article, can be appropriated to better uses for the Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the appropriation to other purposes, but in no event shall the amount of the appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named, to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated that each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and settled permanently upon said reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsistence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of persons legally incorporated with the, who shall remove to the reservation herein described and commence farming, one good American cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within 60 days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said reservation.

ARTICLE XI.
In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside
their reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:
1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.
2d. That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.
3d. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United S
tates, or to persons friendly therewith.
4th. They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white women or children.
5th. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.
6th. They withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of the railroad now being built along the Platte river and westward to the Pacific ocean, and they will not in future object to the construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other works of utility or necessity, which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the government will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, one of the said commissioners to be a chief or headman of the tribe.
7th. They agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or roads now established south of the North Platte river, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.

ARTICLE XII.
No treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation herein described which may be held in common, shall be of any validity or force as against the said Indians unless executed and signed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians occupying or interested in the same, and no cession by the tribe shall be understood or construed in such manner as to deprive, without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land selected by him as provided in Article VI of this treaty.

ARTICLE XIII.
The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians the physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths, as herein contemplated, and that such appropriations shall be made from time to time, on the estimate of the Secretary of the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.

ARTICLE XIV.
It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually for three years from date shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of said tribe who in the judgment of the agent may grow the most valuable crops for the respective year.

ARTICLE XV.
The Indians herein named agree that when the agency house and other buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will regard said reservation their permanent home, and they will make no permanent settlement elsewhere; but they shall have the right, subject to the conditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt, as stipulated in Article XI hereof.

ARTICLE XVI.
The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country north of the North Platte river and east of the summits of the Big Horn mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded. Indian territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the consent of the Indians, first had and obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by the United States, that within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all the bands of the Sioux nation, the military posts now established in the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and that the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in the Territory of Montana shall be closed.

ARTICLE XVII.
It is hereby expressly understood and agreed by and between the respective parties to this treaty that the execution of this treaty and its ratification by the United States Senate shall have the effect, and shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all treaties and agreements heretofore entered into between the respective parties hereto, so far as such treaties and agreements obligate the United States to furnish and provide money, clothing, or other articles of property to such Indians and bands of Indians as become parties to this treaty, but no further.

In testimony of all which, we, the said commissioners, and we, the chiefs and headmen of the Brule band of the Sioux nation, have hereunto set our hands and seals at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, this twenty-ninth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight.

N. G. TAYLOR,
W. T. SHERMAN,
Lieutenant General
WM. S. HARNEY,
Brevet Major General U.S.A.
JOHN B. SANBORN,
S. F. TAPPAN,
C. C. AUGUR,
Brevet Major General
ALFRED H. TERRY,
Brevet Major General U.S.A.
Attest:
A. S. H. WHITE, Secretary.
Executed on the part of the Brule band of Sioux by the chiefs and headman whose names are hereto annexed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, D. T., the twenty-ninth day of April, in the year A. D. 1868.
MA-ZA-PON-KASKA, his X mark, Iron Shell.
WAH-PAT-SHAH, his X mark, Red Leaf.
HAH-SAH-PAH, his X mark, Black Horn.
ZIN-TAH-GAH-LAT-WAH, his X mark, Spotted Tail.
ZIN-TAH-GKAH, his X mark, White Tail.
ME-WAH-TAH-NE-HO-SKAH, his X mark, Tall Man.
SHE-CHA-CHAT-KAH, his X mark, Bad Left Hand.
NO-MAH-NO-PAH, his X mark, Two and Two.
TAH-TONKA-SKAH, his X mark, White Bull.
CON-RA-WASHTA, his X mark, Pretty Coon.
HA-CAH-CAH-SHE-CHAH, his X mark, Bad Elk.
WA-HA-KA-ZAH-ISH-TAH, his X mark, Eye Lance.
MA-TO-HA-KE-TAH, his X mark, Bear that looks behind.
BELLA-TONKA-TONKA, his X mark, Big Partisan.
MAH-TO-HO-HONKA, his X mark, Swift Bear.
TO-WIS-NE, his X mark, Cold Place.
ISH-TAH-SKAH, his X mark, White Eye.
MA-TA-LOO-ZAH, his X mark, Fast Bear.
AS-HAH-HAH-NAH-SHE, his X mark, Standing Elk.
CAN-TE-TE-KI-YA, his X mark, The Brave Heart.
SHUNKA-SHATON, his X mark, Day Hawk.
TATANKA-WAKON, his X mark, Sacred Bull.
MAPIA SHATON, his X mark, Hawk Cloud.
MA-SHA-A-OW, his X mark, Stands and Comes.
SHON-KA-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Dog.
Attest:
ASHTON S. H. WHITE, Secretary of Commission.
GEORGE B. WITHS, Phonographer to Commission.
GEO. H. HOLTZMAN.
JOHN D. HOWLAND.
JAMES C. O'CONNOR.
CHAR. E. GUERN, Interpreter.
LEON T. PALLARDY, Interpreter.
NICHOLAS JANIS, Interpreter.
Executed on the part of the Ogallalla band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, the 25th day of May, in the year A. D. 1868.
TAH-SHUN-KA-CO-QUI-PAH, his mark, Man-afraid-of-his-horses.
SHA-TON-SKAH, his X mark, White Hawk.
SHA-TON-SAPAH, his X mark, Black Hawk.
EGA-MON-TON-KA-SAPAH, his X mark, Black Tiger
OH-WAH-SHE-CHA, his X mark, Bad Wound.
PAH-GEE, his X mark, Grass.
WAH-NON SAH-CHE-GEH, his X mark, Ghost Heart.
COMECH, his X mark, Crow.
OH-HE-TE-KAH, his X mark, The Brave.
TAH-TON-KAH-HE-YO-TA-KAH, his X mark, Sitting Bull.
SHON-KA-OH-WAH-MEN-YE, his X mark, Whirlwind Dog.
HA-KAH-KAH-TAH-MIECH, his X mark, Poor Elk.
WAM-BU-LEE-WAH-KON, his X mark, Medicine Eagle.
CHON-GAH-MA-HE-TO-HANS-KA, his X mark, High Wolf.
WAH-SECHUN-TA-SHUN-KAH, his X mark, American Horse.
MAH-KAH-MAH-HA-MAK-NEAR, his X mark, Man that walks under the ground.
MAH-TO-TOW-PAH, his X mark, Four Bears.
MA-TO-WEE-SHA-KTA, his X mark, One that kills the bear.
OH-TAH-KEE-TOKA-WEE-CHAKTA, his X mark, One that kills in a hard place.
TAH-TON-KAH-TA-MIECH, his X mark, The Poor Bull.
OH-HUNS-EE-GA-NON-SKEN, his X mark, Mad Shade.
SHAH-TON-OH-NAH-OM-MINNE-NE-OH-MINNE, his X mark, Whirling hawk.
MAH-TO-CHUN-KA-OH, his X mark, Bear's Back.
CHE-TON-WEE-KOH, his X mark, Fool Hawk.
WAH-HOH-KE-ZA-AH-HAH, his X mark,
EH-TON-KAH, his X mark, Big Mouth.
MA-PAH-CHE-TAH, his X mark, Bad Hand.
WAH-KE-YUN-SHAH, his X mark, Red Thunder.
WAK-SAH, his X mark, One that Cuts Off.
CHAH-NOM-QUI-YAH, his X mark, One that Presents the Pipe.
WAH-KE-KE-YAN-PUH-TAH, his X mark, Fire Thunder.
MAH-TO-NONK-PAH-ZE, his X mark, Bear with Yellow Ears.
CON-REE-TEH-KA, his X mark, The Little Crow.
HE-HUP-PAH-TOH, his X mark, The Blue War Club.
SHON-KEE-TOH, his X mark, The Blue Horse.
WAM-BALLA-OH-CONQUO, his X mark, Quick Eagle.
TA-TONKA-SUPPA, his X mark, Black Bull.
MOH-TOH-HA-SHE-NA, his X mark, The Bear Hide.
Attest:
S. E. WARD.
JAS. C. O'CONNOR.
J. M. SHERWOOD.
W. C. SLICER.
SAM DEON.
H. M. MATHEWS.
JOSEPH BISS
NICHOLAS JANIS, Interpreter.
LEFROY JOTT, Interpreter.
ANTOINE JANIS, Interpreter.
Executed on the part of the Minneconjou band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereunto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.
HEH-WON-GE-CHAT, his X mark, One Horn.
OH-PON-AH-TAH-E-MANNE, his X mark, The Elk that Bellows Walking.
HEH-HO-LAH-ZEH-CHA-SKAH, his X mark, Young White Bull.
WAH-CHAH-CHUM-KAH-COH-KEEPAH, his X mark, One that is Afraid of Shield.
HE-HON-NE-SHAKTA, his X mark, The Old Owl.
MOC-PE-A-TOH, his X mark, Blue Cloud.
OH-PONG-GE-LE-SKAH, his X mark, Spotted Elk.
TAH-TONK-KA-HON-KE-SCHUE, his X mark, Slow bull.
SHONK-A-NEE-SHAH-SHAH-ATAH-PE, his X mark, The Dog Chief.
MA-TO-TAH-TA-TONK-KA, his X mark, Bull Bear.
WOM-BEH-LE-TON-KAH, his X mark, The Big Eagle.
MATOH, EH-SCHNE-LAH, his X mark, The Lone Bear.
MA-TOH-OH-HE-TO-KEH, his X mark, The Brave Bear.
EH-CHE-MA-KEH, his X mark, The Runner.
TI-KI-YA, his X mark, The Hard.
HE-MA-ZA, his X mark, Iron Horn.
Attest:
JAS. C O'CONNOR,
WM. D. BROWN,
NICHOLAS JANIS,
ANTOINE JANIS,
Interpreters.
Executed on the part of the Yanctonais band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized:
MAH-TO-NON-PAH, his X mark, Two Bears.
MA-TO-HNA-SKIN-YA, his X mark, Mad Bear.
HE-O-PU-ZA, his X mark, Louzy.
AH-KE-CHE-TAH-CHE-KA-DAN, his X mark, Little Soldier.
MAH-TO-E-TAN-CHAN, his X mark, Chief Bear.
CU-WI-TO-WIA, his X mark, Rotten Stomach.
SKUN-KA-WE-TKO, his X mark, Fool Dog.
ISH-TA-SAP-PAH, his X mark, Black Eye.
IH-TAN-CHAN, his X mark, The Chief.
I-A-WI-CA-KA, his X mark, The One who Tells the Truth.
AH-KE-CHE-TAH, his X mark, The Soldier.
TA-SHI-NA-GI, his X mark, Yellow Robe.
NAH-PE-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Hand.
CHAN-TEE-WE-KTO, his X mark, Fool Heart.
HOH-GAN-SAH-PA, his X mark, Black Catfish.
MAH-TO-WAH-KAN, his X mark, Medicine Bear.
SHUN-KA-KAN-SHA, his X mark, Red Horse.
WAN-RODE, his X mark, The Eagle.
CAN-HPI-SA-PA, his X mark, Black Tomahawk.
WAR-HE-LE-RE, his X mark, Yellow Eagle.
CHA-TON-CHE-CA, his X mark, Small Hawk, or Long Fare.
SHU-GER-MON-E-TOO-HA-SKA, his X mark, Fall Wolf.
MA-TO-U-TAH-KAH, his X mark, Sitting Bear.
HI-HA-CAH-GE-NA-SKENE, his X mark, Mad Elk.
Arapahoes.
LITTLE CHIEF, his X mark.
TALL BEAR, his X mark.
TOP MAN, his X mark.
NEVA, his X mark.
THE WOUNDED BEAR, his X mark.
WHIRLWIND, his X mark.
THE FOX, his X mark.
THE DOG BIG MOUTH, his X mark.
SPOTTED WOLF, his X mark.
SORREL HORSE, his X mark.
BLACK COAL, his X mark.
BIG WOLF, his X mark.
KNOCK-KNEE, his X mark.
BLACK CROW, his X mark.
THE LONE OLD MAN, his X mark.
PAUL, his X mark.
BLACK BULL, his X mark.
BIG TRACK, his X mark.
THE FOOT, his X mark.
BLACK WHITE, his X mark.
YELLOW HAIR, his X mark.
LITTLE SHIELD, his X mark.
BLACK BEAR, his X mark.
WOLF MOCASSIN, his X mark.
BIG ROBE, his X mark.
WOLF CHIEF, his X mark.
Witnesses:
ROBERT P. MCKIBBIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, and Bvt. Lieut. Col. U. S. A.,
Commanding Fort Laramie.
WM. H. POWELL,
Brevet Major, Captain 4th Infantry.
HENRY W. PATTERSON,
Captain 4th Infantry.
THEO E. TRUE,
Second Lieutenant 4th Infantry.
W. G. BULLOCK.
FORT LARAMIE, WYOMING TERRITORY
November 6, 1868.
MAH-PI-AH-LU-TAH, his X mark, Red Cloud.
WA-KI-AH-WE-CHA-SHAH, his X mark, Thunder Man.
MA-ZAH-ZAH-GEH, his X mark, Iron Cane.
WA-UMBLE-WHY-WA-KA-TUYAH, his X mark, High Eagle.
KO-KE-PAH, his X mark, Man Afraid.
WA-KI-AH-WA-KOU-AH, his X mark, Thunder Flying Running.
Witnessess:
W. MCE. DYE,
Brevet Colonel U. S. Army,
Commanding.
A. B. CAIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, Brevet Major U. S. Army.
ROBT. P. MCKIBBIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col. U. S. Army.
JNO. MILLER,
Captain 4th Infantry.
G. L. LUHN,
First Lieutenant 4th Infantry, Bvt. Capt. U. S. Army.
H. C. SLOAN,
Second Lieutenant 4th Infantry.

This primary source comes from the General Records of the United States Government.
National Archives Identifier: 299803
Full Citation: Fort Laramie Treaty; 4/29/1868; Indian Treaties, 1722 - 1869; General Records of the United States Government, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/fort-laramie-treaty, June 25, 2019]


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Document

Poster Advertising "Indian Territory That Garden of the World, Open for Homestead and Pre-Emption" in Current Day Oklahoma

ca. 1880

The Homestead Act passed on May 20, 1862. It greatly accelerated settlement of the western United States, providing 160 acres of free land to qualified citizens, very often at the expense of displaced Native Americans. 

This poster advertises land in current-day Oklahoma. It says that, in his last message to Congress, the President strongly recommended "that the Indian Territory be opened for settlement, and there is no doubt but that Congress...will pass the necessary act declaring the unoccupied lands in Indian Territory...open for homestead and pre-emption." It includes a "map of Indian Territory showing the Lands that will be subject to Homestead Entry and How to Reach Them...of which there will be over 10,000,000 Acres" and says "The rush will be great, and early comers will have every advantage."
This primary source comes from the Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands.
National Archives Identifier: 4662607
Full Citation: Poster Advertising "Indian Territory That Garden of the World, Open for Homestead and Pre-Emption" in Current Day Oklahoma ; ca. 1880; Letters Received, 11/1863 - 12/1904; Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/indian-territory-poster, June 25, 2019]


Poster Advertising "Indian Territory That Garden of the World, Open for Homestead and Pre-Emption" in Current Day Oklahoma

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Document

Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations

8/14/1886

Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico sent this letter to President Grover Cleveland supporting Apache removal to eastern reservations.

Transcript

Santa Fe N. M. August 14 1886.

Hon. Grover Cleveland,
President,

Sir,-

We are much surprised to learn that opposition is being made to the proposition of Gen. Miles to remove portions of the Apache Indians from their present reservation in Arizona.
It does not seem possible that such opposition could originate with persons who comprehend the situation here and the need of radical measures for the pacification of our Indian troubles, or that it could be inspired by a desire to promote the civilization and welfare of these Indians, or the peace and successful development of these territories.
Many of us have resided here for years, have seen this country the victim of Indian raids year after year, and have a right to be credited with intelligent and practical views on this subject. We are firmly convinced that no permanent cessation of these raids, or enduring safety to the isolated camps of miners and ranchmen, can be secured so long as the Chiricahua and Warm Springs bands of these Apaches are permitted to remain in any part of these territories. For two hundred years they have been traditional enemies and at constant war with the white race. It is true there are but few of them, less than five hundred all told, but there are enough, owing to the generally rugged and inaccessible character of the country they infest and raid, and the isolated nature of the settlements, to keep a very large scope of country in a state of ferment, and thereby to retard the development of valua-



ble mining, ranching and grazing properties upon which this country largely depends for its prosperity.
Generations of hostility show them to be implacable, and that nothing short of extermination will stop their raids so long as they remain here in proximity to their traditional enemies. So long as they are here, that process of extermination will go on, but at a fearful cost of life and property to our people and of treasure to the government. For every warrior killed some boy is now growing up to take his place.
The boys of today are the outlaws and bandits--the Jus, the Nanes and the Geronimos--of tomorrow. It has been so for generations and will continue so, if they remain here, till they are exterminated; all the interests of these territories, in the meantime languishing and their development paralyzed, by the presence of an element that momentarily threatens destruction to our most important industries.
The other bands of the Apaches are peaceful, and in the main, self-sustaining. There is no special occasion or desire for their removal, but the removal of the others named we deem imperative to the restoration of confidence and tranquility to these territories. The lives and property of large numbers of people, and the development of the extraordinary sources of wealth to the country found here are at stake in this matter, and we sincerely hope and pray that the suggestions of Gen. Miles, in the premises, may be adopted.
Gen. Miles has so far since he has been placed in command here, by the wisdom of his plans and the vigor of their execution, kept the actively hostile portion of these bands out of New Mexico and finally



driven them out of Arizona. They are practically conquered and are understood as being desirous to return to the reservation. To permit them to do so would be simply to tempt fate, and a repetition of the folly of two years ago--another drunken debauch and a murder of some of their number at the first opportunity, and a return to the warpath of pillage and murder to escape punishment. That will be the inevitable result if they are permitted to return.Of this we repeat that we are firmly convinced, and that no permanent peace can come to New Mexico or Arizona till these bands are removed to distant and isolation localities.

Very respectfully,

Edmund G. Ross, Governor
Geo W Lane, Secretary
Geo. W. Julian Surgeon General
H. M. Atkinson
Chas T Earley Register Lane Office
Leigh O Knapp U. S. Receiver
J N Snuthee Special Agt G.L.O.
Henry L Waldo
L Bradford Prince



Executive Mansion.
2087 HGA (?) 1886
The within communication is respectfully
[numbers]
referred to the
File with 1066 [unintelligible]
Secretary of War.
By direction of the President:
Daniel S. Lamont, Private Secretary.
Santa Fe N. M.
Aug 14 86
Governor E. G. Ross et al
For removal Chiricahua and Warm Springs bands of Apache Indians from Arizona to distant and isolated localities.

[2087 HGA 1886
File with 1066 Ogo 1886
Read Oco Sept 22 86
Lieutenant General [rec'd back?] Sept 20/86]

Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C., Sept 22d, 1886
Respectfully ret? to the Secretary of War

All of the Indians herein referred to have been removed from Arizona. P. A. Shid? Lieut General Commanding

[EB 44 / 262
EB Secy - [unintelligible]]
This primary source comes from the Records of the Adjutant General's Office.
National Archives Identifier: 4662605
Full Citation: Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations; 8/14/1886; Letters Received, 1805 - 1889; Records of the Adjutant General's Office, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/governor-ross-apache-removal, June 25, 2019]


Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations

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Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations

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Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations

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Letter from Governor Edmond Ross of New Mexico to President Grover Cleveland Supporting Apache Removal to Eastern Reservations

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