Lewis & Clark's Expedition to the Complex West

Mapping History

All documents and text associated with this activity are printed below, followed by a worksheet for student responses.

Introduction

In 1803 the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France. President Jefferson sent co-captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore west of the Mississippi River in 1804. Their route west is shown in green. Although this territory was unknown to some, to others it was very familiar.

Examine the documents related to the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Determine where different groups were involved and use the hints to place the documents on the X's on the map.


Name:
Class:

Worksheet

Lewis & Clark's Expedition to the Complex West

Mapping History

Examine the documents and text included in this activity. Consider how each document or piece of text relates to the image shown below. Write the corresponding document or text number on the image where you think it belongs. (Some may be placed for you already.) Write your conclusion response in the space provided.

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1

Activity Element

President Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark

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2

Activity Element

Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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3

Activity Element

Proclamation to the People of New Orleans

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4

Activity Element

List of Indian Presents Purchased by Meriwether Lewis in Preparation for the Expedition to the West

Page 1



5

Activity Element

President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians

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6

Activity Element



Hint: Captain Lewis and the Corps resided here with the local Mandan people over the course of a winter, collecting information from them about the land. At the time, little was known to the U.S. Government beyond this point in the route. Move the document describing their stay with the Mandan here. Remember what people/countries were mentioned in this document for later!

7

Activity Element



Hint: Lewis and Clark modeled all further contact with Native American groups after their confrontations with the people here. Move the document here in which they told Native Americans that they were the children of a new father, shared gifts, and spoke with them about trade. Remember what people/countries were mentioned in this document for later!

8

Activity Element



Hint: The port of New Orleans as well as the whole of the Louisiana Territory was ceded from Spain to France and then sold to the United States. Move the document that mentions New Orleans here. Remember what people/countries were mentioned in this document for later!

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Activity Element



Hint: When the Corps of Discovery began their journey at St. Louis, Missouri, they knew they would encounter peoples to whom they would give gifts to win their favor. Move the document that mentions gifts here. Remember what people/countries were mentioned in this document for later!

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Activity Element



Hint: Jefferson worried that British fur traders had too much influence with Native American groups in this part of the West. Move the document that refers to British fur traders here. Remember what people/countries were mentioned in this document for later!

Conclusion

Lewis & Clark's Expedition to the Complex West

Mapping History

Now think about the documents you pinned on this map (that was created for the centennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1903). Create a list of all of the different people or groups who were somehow involved in the western lands of North America at this time. Be prepared to share your list with the class – and to explain the document that provides evidence for each group.

Your Response




Document

List of Indian Presents Purchased by Meriwether Lewis in Preparation for the Expedition to the West

1803

This document lists "Indian Presents" purchased by Lewis in preparation for the expedition to the West. In a secret message to Congress on January 18, 1803, President Thomas Jefferson had asked for $2,500 to explore lands west to the Pacific. Jefferson worked closely with Lewis, co-commander of the expedition, to ensure that he was well-prepared to anticipate the party's needs. While the party ran out of such luxuries as whiskey, tobacco, and salt, they had plenty of rifles, powder, paper, and ink.

Transcript

Indian Presents

12 Pipe Tomahawks | 8 3/4 | | | x 18 | 

6 ½ lbs Strips Sheet Iron | 6 1/2 | | | 1 | 62

1 ps. red flannel 47 ½ yd | 12 3/4 | 5 | 12 | 0 | x 14 | 94

11 ps. Handkerchiefs ass[orted] | 13 | 22 | 8 | 9 | x 59 | 83

1 doz. Ivory combs | 3 oz | 1 | 5 | 8 | 9 | x 59 | 83

½ Catty Ind[ian] S. Silk | 7 oz | 1 | 8 | 1 ½ | x 3 | 33

21 lb Tread ass[orted] | 21 lb | 8 | 13 | 9 | x 23 | 17

1 ps. Scarlet cloth 22 yds | 28 ¾ | 21 | 18 | 9 | x 58 | 50

5 ½ doz fan: Hos | | 7 | 1 | 6 | x 18 | 87

6 gro: Binding | | 4 | 8 | 5 | x 11 | 79

2 card beads | 26 ½ | 1 | 8 | 5 | x 11 | 79

4 doz: butcher knives | | 2 | 0 | 0 | x 5 | 33

12 doz: Pocket Looking Glasses | 12 1/2 | | | | x 5 | 19

15 Doz: Pewter [ditto marks] | 3 3/8 | | | | x 3 | 99

5 doz: Burning [ditto marks] | | | | x 12 | |

2 doz. Nonesopretty| ¾ | | | | x 2 | 74

2 doz. Red Striped tapers | 1 ½ | | | | x 2 | 74

72 pr: striped silk ribbon | 3 ¼ | | | | x 39 | 60

3 lb: red beads | 3 | | | | x 2 | 01

6 papers Small Bells | 1 ¼ | | | | x 4 | 02

1 box with 100 larger [ditto marks] | 1 3/16 | | | | x 2 | 25

73 Bassahes Beads ass[orted] | 20 | | | | x 41 | |

3 1/2 doz: Tinsel Beads ass[orted] | 20 | | | | x 41 | |

1 Thread | | | | |

1 doz: Needle cases | 5 ½ oz | | | | | 30

2 ¾ Doz Lockets | 3 oz | | | | x 3 | 56

8 ½ red beads | 8 ½ | | | | x 25 | 50

2 doz: earrings | | | | | x 1 | |

8 brass kettles | 20 | 4 | 0 | 0 | x 10 | 67

12 lb Brass Strips | 12 lb | 2 | 11 | 0 | x 6 | 80

500 broaches | | | | | x 62 | 07

72 rings | 1 ½ | | | | x 6 | 00

2 corn mills | 52 ¾ | | | | x 20 | 00

15 doz: scissors | 17 ¼ | | | | x 4/8 | 97

| | | | |Confirmed | 496 | 82

| | | | | add | | 53

| | | | | |507 | 35
This primary source comes from the Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General.
National Archives Identifier: 300353
Full Citation: List of Indian Presents Purchased by Meriwether Lewis in Preparation for the Expedition to the West; 1803; Lewis and Clark Expedition; Consolidated Correspondence Files, 1794 - 1890; Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/indian-presents, August 5, 2021]


List of Indian Presents Purchased by Meriwether Lewis in Preparation for the Expedition to the West

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Document

Map of the Louisiana Purchase Territory

1903

This map of the United States highlights in red the territory included in the Louisiana Purchase. Bought from France in 1803, the 820,000 square miles would eventually be split among the 16 states whose borders are outlined in black. The map was created for the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase in 1903.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Land Management.
National Archives Identifier: 594889
Full Citation: Map RG49-OMF-US40-4; Map of the Louisiana Purchase Territory; 1903; United States; Old Map File Manuscript and Annotated Maps of the United States and Its Territories, 1812 - 1946; Records of the Bureau of Land Management, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/map-louisiana-purchase, August 5, 2021]


Map of the Louisiana Purchase Territory

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Document

President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians

1/18/1803

On January 18, 1803, President Thomas Jefferson sent a secret message to Congress. In it, he asked Congress for $2500 to explore the West–all the way to the Pacific Ocean. At the time, the territory did not belong to the United States. Congress agreed to fund the expedition that would be led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.

Transcript

Confidential

Gentlemen of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives:

As the continuance of the act for establishing trading houses with the Indian tribes will be under the consideration of the Legislature at its present session, I think it my duty to communicate the views which have guided me in the execution of that act, in order that you may decide on the policy of continuing it, in the present or any other form, or discontinue it altogether, if that shall, on the whole, seem most for the public good.

The Indian tribes residing within the limits of the United States, have, for a considerable time, been growing more and more uneasy at the constant diminution of the territory they occupy, although effected by their own voluntary sales: and the policy has long been gaining strength with them, of refusing absolutely all further sale, on any conditions; insomuch that, at this time, it hazards their friendship, and excites dangerous jealousies and perturbations in their minds to make any overture for the purchase of the smallest portions of their land. A very few tribes only are not yet obstinately in these dispositions. In order peaceably to counteract this policy of theirs, and to provide an extension of territory which the rapid increase of our numbers will call for, two measures are deemed expedient. First: to encourage them to abandon hunting, to apply to the raising stock, to agriculture and domestic manufacture, and thereby prove to themselves that less land and labor will maintain them in this, better than in their former mode of living. The extensive forests necessary in the hunting life, will then become useless, and they will see advantage in exchanging them for the means of improving their farms, and of increasing their domestic comforts. Secondly: to multiply trading houses among them, and place within their reach those things which will contribute more to their domestic comfort, than the possession of extensive, but uncultivated wilds. Experience and reflection will develop to them the wisdom of exchanging what they can spare and we want, for what we can spare and they want. In leading them to agriculture, to
manufactures, and civilization; in bringing together their and our settlements, and in preparing them ultimately to participate in the benefits of our governments, I trust and believe we are acting for their greatest good. At these trading houses we have pursued the principles of the act of Congress, which directs that the commerce shall be carried on liberally, and requires only that the capital stock shall not be diminished. We consequently undersell private traders, foreign and domestic, drive them from the competition; and thus, with the good will of the Indians, rid ourselves of a description of men who are constantly endeavoring to excite in the Indian mind suspicions, fears, and irritations towards us. A letter now enclosed, shows the effect of our competition on the operations of the traders, while the Indians, perceiving the advantage of purchasing from us, are soliciting generally, our establishment of trading houses among them. In one quarter this is particularly interesting. The Legislature, reflecting on the late occurrences on the Mississippi, must be sensible how desirable it is to possess a respectable breadth of country on that river, from our Southern limit to the Illinois at least; so that we may present as firm a front on that as on our Eastern border. We possess what is below the Yazoo, and can probably acquire a certain breadth from the Illinois and Wabash to the Ohio; but between the Ohio and Yazoo, the country all belongs to the Chickasaws, the most friendly tribe within our limits, but the most decided against the alienation of lands. The portion of their country most important for us is exactly that which they do not inhabit. Their settlements are not on the Mississippi, but in the interior country. They have lately shown a desire to become agricultural; and this leads to the desire of buying implements and comforts. In the strengthening and gratifying of these wants, I see the only prospect of planting on the Mississippi itself, the means of its own safety. Duty has required me to submit these views to the judgment of the Legislature; but as their disclosure might embarrass and defeat their effect, they are committed to the special confidence of the two Houses.
While the extension of the public commerce among the Indian tribes, may deprive of that source of profit such of our citizens as are engaged in it, it might be worthy the attention of Congress, in their care of individual as well as of the general interest, to point, in another direction, the enterprise of these citizens, as profitably for themselves, and more usefully for the public. The river Missouri, and the Indians inhabiting it, are not as well known as is rendered desirable by their connexion with the Mississippi, and consequently with us. It is, however, understood, that the country on that river is inhabited by numerous tribes, who furnish great supplies of furs and peltry to the trade of another nation, carried on in a high latitude, through an infinite number of portages and lakes, shut up by ice through a long season. The commerce on that line could bear no competition with that of the Missouri, traversing a moderate climate, offering according to the best accounts, a continued navigation from its source, and possibly with a single portage, from the Western Ocean, and finding to the Atlantic a choice of channels through the Illinois or Wabash, the lakes and Hudson, through the Ohio and Susquehanna, or Potomac or James rivers, and through the Tennessee and Savannah, rivers. An intelligent officer, with ten or twelve chosen men, fit for the enterprise, and willing to undertake it, taken from our posts, where they may be spared without inconvenience, might explore the whole line, even to the Western Ocean, have conferences with the natives on the subject of commercial intercourse, get admission among them for our traders, as others are admitted, agree on convenient deposits for an interchange of articles, and return with the information acquired, in the course of two summers. Their arms and accoutrements, some instruments of observation, and light and cheap presents for the Indians, would be all the apparatus they could carry, and with an expectation of a soldier's portion of land on their return, would constitute the whole expense. Their pay would be going on, whether here or there. While other civilized nations have encountered great expense to enlarge the boundaries of knowledge by undertaking voyages of discovery, and for other literary purposes, in various parts and directions,
our nation seems to owe to the same object, as well as to its own interests, to explore this, the only line of easy communication across the continent, and so directly traversing our own part of it. The interests of commerce place the principal object within the constitutional powers and care of Congress, and that it should incidentally advance the geographical knowledge of our own continent, cannot be but an additional gratification. The nation claiming the territory, regarding this as a literary pursuit, which is in the habit of permitting within its dominions, would not be disposed to view it with jealousy, even if the expiring state of its interests there did not render it a matter of indifference. The appropriation of two thousand five hundred dollars, "for the purpose of extending the external commerce of the United States," while understood and considered by the Executive as giving the legislative sanction, would cover the undertaking from notice, and prevent the obstructions which interested individuals might otherwise previously prepare in its way.

TH. Jefferson
Jan. 18. 1803.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. House of Representatives.
National Archives Identifier: 306698
Full Citation: President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians; 1/18/1803; President's Messages from the 7th Congress; (HR 7A-D1); Presidential Messages, 1791 - 1861; Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/jefferson-confidential-message-relations-indians, August 5, 2021]


President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians

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President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians

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President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians

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President Thomas Jefferson Confidential Message to Congress Concerning Relations with the Indians

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Document

President Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark

2/19/1806

President Thomas Jefferson sent this message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark.

Transcript

To the Senate & House of Representatives of the United States.

In pursuance of a measure proposed to Congress by a message of Jan 18 1803 and sanctioned by their appropriation for carrying it into execution, Capt Meriwether Lewis of the 1st regiment of infantry was appointed, with a party of men, to explore the river Missouri, from it's mouth to it's source & crossing the highlands by the shortest portage to seek the best water communication thence to the Pacific ocean: & Lieut Clarke was appointed second in command. they were to enter into conference with the Indian nations on their route, with a view to the establishment of commerce with them. they entered the Missouri May 14th 1804 and on the 1st of Nov. took up their winter quarters near the Mandan towns, 1609 miles above the mouth of the river in Lat 47 degrees - 21'-47" North & Long 99 degrees 24'-45" West from Greenwich. on the 8th of April 1805 they proceeded up the river in pursuance of the objects prescribed to them. a letter of the preceding day Apr 7 from Capt Lewis is herewith communicated. during his stay among the Mandans, he had been able to lay down the Missouri according to courses & distances taken on his passage up it, corrected by frequent observations of Longitude + Latitude; & to add to the actual survey of this portion of the river, a general map of the country between the Missouri & Pacific from the 34th to the 54th degrees of Latitude. these additions are from information collected from the Indians with whom he had opportunities of communicating during his journey & residence with them.



copies of this map are now presented to both houses of Congress. With these I communicate also a statistical view, procured and forwarded by him, of the Indian nations inhabiting the Territory of Louisiana, & the countries adjacent to it's Northern and Western borders, of their commerce & of other interesting circumstances respecting them.

In order to render the statement, as compleat as may be, of the Indians inhabiting the country West of the Mississippi, I add
Doctr. Sibley's account of those residing in & adjacent to the Territory of Orleans.

I communicate also from the same person, an Account of the Red river, according to the best information he had been able to collect.

Having been disappointed, after considerable preparation, in the purpose of sending an exploring party up that river in the summer of 1800, it was thought best to employ the autumn of that year in procuring a knowledge of an interesting branch of the river called the Washita. This was undertaken under the director of Mr Dunbar of Natchez, a citizen of distinguished science, who had aided, and continues to aid us, with his disinterested & valuable services in the prosecution of these enterprizes. he ascended the river to the remarkeable Hotsprings near it, in Lat. 34 degrees 31' 4.16" Long. 92 degrees - 50' -45" West from Greenwich, taking it's courses & distances & correcting them by frequent celestial observations. Extracts from his observations, and



copies of his map of the river, from it's mouth to the Hotsprings, make part of the present communications. The examination of the Red river itself, is but now commencing.

Th. Jefferson
Feb. 19. 1806.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. House of Representatives.
National Archives Identifier: 306702
Full Citation: President Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark; 2/19/1806; President's Messages from the 9th Congress; Presidential Messages, 1791 - 1861; Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/discoveries-lewis-clark, August 5, 2021]


President Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark

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President Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark

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President Thomas Jefferson's message to Congress communicating the discoveries of the explorers Lewis and Clark

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Document

Proclamation to the People of New Orleans

12/20/1803

Through the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, France sold more than 800,000 square miles of land to the United States for $15 million—doubling the size of the fledgling country and paving the way for westward expansion. This proclamation assured inhabitants of their rights. Because the territory had been recently transferred from Spain to France, it was printed in English, French, and Spanish.
This primary source comes from the Records of the U.S. House of Representatives.
National Archives Identifier: 593571
Full Citation: Proclamation to the People of New Orleans; 12/20/1803; Presidential Messages, 1791 - 1861; Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/proclamation-new-orleans, August 5, 2021]


Proclamation to the People of New Orleans

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Document

Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

8/4/1804

Transcript

To the petit voleur, or wear-ruge-not, the great Chief of the Ottoe to the Chiefs and warriors of the Ottoes, and the chiefs and warriors of the Missouri nation residing with the Ottoes-

Children.- Convene from among you the old men of experience; the men on the wisdom of whose judgement you are willing to risk the future happenings of your nations; and the warriors, to the strength of those arms you have been taught to look for protection in the day of danger.-when in Council tranquilly assembled, reflect on the times past, and that to come’ do not deceive yourselves, nor suffer others to deceive you; but like men and warriors devoted to the real interest of their nations, seek those truth, which can alone perpetuate its happenings.

Children.- Commissioned and sent by the great chief of the Seventeen great nations of America, we have come to inform you, as we go also to inform all that nations of red men who inhabit the borders of the Missouri, that a great council was lately held between this great chief of the Seventeen great nations of America, and your old father the French and Spanish, and that in this great council it was agreed that all the white men of Louisiana, inhabiting the waters of the Missouri and Mississippi should obey the commands of this great chief; he has accordingly adopted them and his children and they



are to live in peace with all the white man, for they are his children, neither wage war against the red men your neighbors, for they are equally his children and he is bound to protect them. Injure not the persons of any traders who may come among you, neither destroy nor take their property from them by force; more particularly those traders who visit you under the protection of your great father’s flag. Do not obstruct the passage of any boat, pirogue, or other vessel, which may be ascending or descending the Missouri River, more especially such as may be under cover of your great fathers flag neither injure any red or white man on board such vessels as may possess the flag, for by thou signed your may know them to be good men, and that they do not intend to injure you, they are therefore to be treated as friends, and as the common children of one great father, (the great chief of the Seventeen great nations of America.-

Children.- Do these things which your great father advises and be happy. Avoid the councils of bad birds turn on your heel from them as your could from the precipice of an high rock, whose summit reached the clouds, and whose base was weathered by the gulph of human woes; lest by one false step you should bring upon your nation the displeasure of your great father, the great chief of the Seventeen great nations of America, who could consume you as the fire consumes the grass of the plains. The mouths of all the rivers through which the traders bring goods to you are in his possession, and



and if you displease him he could at pleasure shut them up and prevent his traders from coming among you; and this would of course bring all the Calamities of want upon you, but it is not the wish of your great father to injure you, on the contrary he is now pursuing the measures best calculated to induce your happiness.

Children.- If you open your ears to the councils of your great father, the great chief of the seventeen great nations of America, & strictly pursue the advice which he has now given you through us, he will as soon as possible after our return, send a store of goods to te mouth of the river Platte to trade with you for your peltries and furs; these goods will be furnished you annually in a regular manner, and in such quantities as will be equal to your necessities. You will then obtain goods on much better terms than you have ever received them heretofore.

Children. - As it will necessarily take some time before we can return, and your great father send and establish his store of goods; he will permit your old traders who reside among you, or who annually visit you, to continue to trade with you, provided they give you good Council.

Children.- We are now on a long journey to the head of the Missouri; the length of this journey compelled us to load our boat and progress with provision, we have therefore brought but very few goods as presents for yourselves or any other nations which



which we may meet on our way. We are no traders, but have come to consult you on the subject of your trade; to open the road and prepare the way, in order that our nation may here after receive a regular and plentiful supply of goods.

Children.- We are sorry that your absence from your town prevented our seeing your great chief and yourselves; it would have given us much pleasure to have spoken to you personally’ but as the cold season is fast advancing, and we have a long distance to travel, we could not wait your return,.

Children.-If you r great chief wishes to see your great father and speak with him, he can readily do so. Let your chief engage some trader who may reside with you the ensuing winter, to take him and four of his principal chiefs or warriors with him to St. Louis when he returns thither on the ensuing spring; your great chief may take with him also an interpreter of his own choice, who shall be well paid for his services by your great father’s Chiefs; the trader will also be well paid for his services by the Commandant at St. Louis. The commandant at St. Louis will furnish you with the necessary number of horses, and all other means to make your journey from thence to your great father’s town comfortable and safe.

Children.- In order that the Commandant at St. Louis, as well as your great father, and all his chiefs may know you, you must take with you the flag, the medal, and this parcel which we now send you. When your great father and his chiefs see those things they will know



know that you have opened your ears to your great father’s voice, and have come to hear this good Councils.

Our oldest son the wear-ruge-nor. If the situation of your nation is such that you cannot with propriety leave them, you may send some of your principal men not exceeding five to see your great father and hear his words. You must give them authority to act for you and your nation. Your great father will receive them and his children, give them good councils, and send them back loaded with presents for their nation; your nation would then see that we have now told you is true, and that the great chief of the Seventeen great nations of America never sends his red children from him to return with empty hands to their village.

Our oldest son the wear-ruge-nor. Whomsoever you send to your great father must carry the flag and the parole, in order that your great father and his chief may know that they have come to see them by our invitation. Send them also all the flags and medals which you may have received from your old fathers the French and the Spanish, or from any other nation whatever, your father will give you new flags and new medals of his own in exchange for those that you send him. It is not proper since you have become the children of the great chief of the Seventeen great nations of America that you should wear or keep.



Talk of Capt. Lewis to the Oto Nation
accompanying Gen Wilkinson's letter of August 25th 1805
This primary source comes from the Records of the Office of the Secretary of War.
National Archives Identifier: 4662548
Full Citation: Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians; 8/4/1804; W-841; Letters Received, 1801 - 1889; Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, ; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/lewis-speech-otto, August 5, 2021]


Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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Speech of Captain Meriwether Lewis to the Otto Indians

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